Course Descriptions

Most courses listed in this catalogue have a designation indicating the marking period (normally the semester) when offered. These designations are Fall, Spring and Summer. Due to the dynamic nature of the College's academic programs, these designations should be used only as guides. For specific and current information, search for courses in the PowerCampus SelfService system. Guests and Visitors can log in as a Visitor and are able to search for course sections for a given semester. Prerequisites for courses must be satisfactorily completed prior to enrollment in the listed course.

Baking

BAK 101: Principles of Baking
2 Credit Hours Fall Sem.

This course introduces the students to the foundations of baking. Topics covered include weights and measures, formula conversion, scaling, basic baking chemistry, mixing techniques, yeast breads, quick breads, short doughs, cookie doughs, and basic cakes.

BAK 102: Baking Block One
3 Credit Hours Fall Sem.

Baking students will be introduced to quantity production of a variety of baked goods found in a retail bakery operation. Students will begin to develop an understanding of how a retail bakery works by rotating through various positions during production. Under supervision, students will produce products for their retail bakery outlet, the food service on campus, and a limited number of wholesale accounts. Students will be introduced to various equipment and tools specific to a retail bakery, restaurant bakery and/or small hotel bakery operation. Students will learn the use of a beam balance and platform-type scale. Students will observe demonstrations in basic cake decorating and simple ways of finishing products for a retail operation. They will be taught various production methods used for cakes, quick breads, yeast breads, rolls, sweet dough and Danish production.

BAK 103: Pastry Block Two
3 Credit Hours Fall Sem.

Students will be introduced to artisan bread production and a more advanced variety of pastries. In this hands-on unit, the students will develop a proficiency in working with puff pastry, pate a choux, tarts, cake decorating, icings, fillings and simple cold desserts. Prerequisite: Baking Block One (BAK 102).

BAK 104: Baking Block Three
3 Credit Hours Spring Sem.

In this production lab, students will use the knowledge and skills learned in Principles of Restaurant Desserts (BAK 140) to raise their level of proficiency in working with pastry basics, tarts and flans, specialty cakes and gateaux, Bavarians and mousses, basic sugar work and decorative work with chocolate. Prerequisites: Baking Block One (BAK 102) and Pastry Block Two (BAK 103).

BAK 105: Baking Block Four
3 Credit Hours Spring Sem.

In this production lab, students will show a more advanced variety of cakes and pastries, that include work with mousse, Bavarians, hippen and tuile cookies, as well as sugar and chocolate work, truffles and molding chocolates. Prerequisite: Baking Block Three (BAK 104).

BAK 121: Retail Operations Management
2 Credit Hours Fall/Spring Sems.

This course focuses on the advertising and merchandising of a retail bakery and the baked goods produced. Students will learn the formula costing of bakery products produced, sales and merchandising, inventory and ordering skills, coffee brewing, costing of beverages sold and measurement of customer satisfaction.

BAK 130: Bakery/Café Facilities Operations
1 Credit Hour Spring Sem.

This course will provide a student with an understanding of the knowledge and skills required for the successful operation of a retail bakery/café. The major project for this course is the design of a footprint for a retail bakery/café to include the development of a business plan, a sales plan and an operational budget. Prerequisite: Retail Operations Management (BAK 121).

BAK 140: Principles of Restaurant Desserts
3 Credit Hours Spring Sem.

This course introduces the baking student to the art of restaurant desserts and dessert presentation. The student will, through demos and hands-on application, begin to develop the skill necessary to plate and serve attractive desserts with appropriate sauces and garnishes. Prerequisite: Principles of Baking (BAK 101).

BAK 150: Foundations of Baking
4 Credit Hours Fall/Spring Sems.

In this laboratory course, the student will be exposed to a foundational array of baking preparations and skills. The student will be exposed to quick breads; yeast-raised products including artisan breads; pies, tarts, cookies, and cakes; and introductory pastry items such as pâte à choux, puff pastry, and phyllo dough, as well as custards, fillings, and cold dessert sauces. Additional emphasis will be placed on formula conversion, scaling, and mixing techniques that differentiate baking from cooking.

BAK 160: Foundations of Baking I
4 Credit Hours Fall Sems.

In this laboratory course the student will be exposed to a foundational array of baking methods, procedures and techniques. The student will be introduced to yeast risen dough, quick breads and introductory pastry items. Emphasis will be placed on formula conversion, food cost, scaling and mixing methods. Students will begin preparation of professional baking career portfolio. This course may use alcoholic beverages to flavor production items.

BAK 165: Quantity Baking I
4 Credit Hours Fall Sem.

A lecture/laboratory course that introduces the foundations of quantity baking. Utilizing foundational baking skills from BAK 160, students will learn techniques and theory regarding formula conversion and quantity scaling and production. Students will begin to develop an understanding of how a retail bakery operates through rotation of various positions during production. Products produced will be utilized for retail and wholesale sales. Prerequisites: Foundations of Baking (BAK 160)

BAK 232: Advanced Patisserie
3 Credit Hours Fall/Spring/Sum Sems.

A lecture/laboratory class that focuses on the preparation of classical pastries and contemporary restaurant desserts. Students will learn the techniques and procedures used in the production of European-style tortes, petit fours sec and glace, Bavarians, mousse, poached fruits, and confections. Strong emphasis will be placed on piping techniques and styles used in decorating cakes and desserts. Prerequisite: Baking Block One (BAK 102) or permission of the instructor and/or Dean of the Division.

BAK 242: Commercial Baking Block
4 Credit Hours Summer Sem.

An on-the-job training module that prepares the students to produce a standard array of baked goods found in most bakeshops and hotel/restaurant pastry shops. Students will learn to prepare the following items in a volume format: breads, rolls, quick breads, donuts, Danish pastries, puff pastry desserts, pâte à choux, hippen cookies, cakes, tortes, mousse, Bavarians, fruit fillings, cheesecake, specialty cookies, and basic work with chocolate. Prerequisite: BAK 150 Foundations in Baking or permission of the instructor and/or Dean of the Division.

BAK 260: Foundations of Pastry Arts and Baking II
4 Credit Hours Spring Sem.

Based on foundational competencies achieved in Foundations of Baking 150 students will build upon learned concepts and be exposed to an advanced array of baking methods, procedures and techniques. The student will be introduced to laminated dough, tarts, pâte à choux mousses, Bavarians, basic dessert sauces. Introduction of dessert plating and presentation as well as advanced cake decoration will also be included. This course may use alcoholic beverages to flavor production items. Prerequisites: Foundations of Baking (BAK 160).

BAK 265: Quantity Baking II
4 Credit Hours

A lecture/laboratory course that reinforces the foundational quantity baking skills obtained in Introduction to Quantity Baking I and Foundations of Baking I. Students will prepare artisan style yeasted products, laminated dough and a variety of additional retail and wholesale products. Pre- requisites: Foundations of Baking I (BAK 160) and Introduction to Quantity Baking I (BAK 165)

BAK 270: International Baking and Pastry
4 Credit Hours Fall/Spring Sems.

A lecture/laboratory class that focuses on the preparation of classical pastries and contemporary restaurant desserts.  Students will learn the techniques, methods and procedures used in the production of International style tortes, petits fours sec & glacé, frozen desserts. Strong emphasis will be placed on plating and presentation techniques. Students will explore the factors that have had an affect on the evolution of dessert pastries in a variety of countries. These factors include geography and climate; historical and political events and various cultural and religious influences. Prerequisites: Foundations of Baking I (BAK 160), Foundations in Baking II (BAK 260)

BAK 275: Confections and Decorative Work
4 Credit Hours Fall/Spring Sems.

A lecture/laboratory class that focuses on the preparation of confections and contemporary restaurant desserts.  Students will learn the techniques, methods and procedures used in the production of petits fours sec & glacé, confections, and decorative finishing work, including, but not limited to, chocolate and sugar.  Strong emphasis will be placed on presentation techniques. Prerequisites: Foundations of Baking I (BAK 160), Foundations in Baking II (BAK 260)

BAK 280: Retail Practical Experience
6 Credit Hours Fall/Spring Sems.

This course focuses on the advertising, merchandising and management of a retail bakery and the baked goods produced. Each student will act as General Manager of the bakery operation during rotation through course positions. Students will utilize previously learned formula food costing and be responsible for sales, marketing, inventory and ordering as well as labor cost control techniques regarding retail and wholesale operations. The measurement of customer satisfaction will also be focused upon. Prerequisites: Foundations of Baking I (BAK 160), Foundations in Baking II (BAK 260), Introduction to Quantity Baking I (BAK 165) and Introduction to Quantity Baking II (BAK 265).

BAK 295: Baking Externship
6 Credit Hours As Required

Students will complete a minimum of a semester of bakery industry experience. Students will sign a contractual agreement with an externship site. The following options are available: 1) Competitive participation in one of the externships developed by the College; or 2) Independent externship in the industry secured by the student that meets the approval of the Program Coordinator. Verified work experience of one year prior to enrollment at Paul Smith's may be substituted for either option, providing that experience is comparable and applicable to the student's major (see Externship Verification Process section). Enrollment in either of the two options requires a cumulative GPA of 2.00 or better. Grading is pass/fail based on completion of the contractual agreement with the externship property and adherence to their rules and regulations of employment as well as to Paul Smith's College rules of student conduct.

Business

ACC 101: Financial Accounting
3 Credit Hours Fall/Spring Sems.

Students utilize the rules of debits/credits in preparing the step-by-step process incorporated in a full accounting cycle. Analysis and preparation of basic financial statements are included. Students will be able to complete an in-depth accounting of certain assets and liabilities. (3 hours lecture).

ACC 102: Managerial Accounting
3 Credit Hours Spring Sem.

Study of the principles of financial accounting begun in Financial Accounting (ACC 101) is continued, including in-depth studies of cash flows, international accounting practices, and corporate structure. A foundation of managerial accounting is presented, including standard costing, budgeting, profit planning, break-even analysis, and responsibility accounting in decision-making situations. (3 hours lecture). Prerequisite: Financial Accounting (ACC 101).

ACC 301: Small Business Accounting
3 Credit Hours

This course will familiarize students with accounting principles and practices applicable to small business organizations. Various business models will be explored. Students will analyze and maintain financial information using small business accounting software and assess the financial implications of small business decision-making. (3 hours lecture). Prerequisite: Junior Standing and Financial Accounting (ACC 101).

ECN 101: Macroeconomics
3 Credit Hours Fall/Spring Sem.

An examination of macroeconomics, including an introduction to economic systems, money and banking, monetary and fiscal policy, economic growth, and the theories and measurement of national income, employment and international trade. (3 hours lecture).

ECN 102: Microeconomics
3 Credit Hours Fall/Spring Sems.

Explores the theory of the firm and consumer behavior within a market system. Emphasis is placed on the relationship between market structure and price and output determination. Current economic problems are used to clarify the development and application of economic models. (3 hours lecture).

ECN 400: The Global Market
3 Credit Hours Fall Sem.

Students will develop an understanding of the global nature of all business and how much of our future lies outside the boundaries of the United States. This course will evaluate recent paradigm shifts from isolationism to regionalized and global economics. Additionally, students will reflect on agreements that have forced the issues of the global market into political debate. (3 hours lecture). Prerequisites: Macroeconomics (ECN 101) or The Service Economy (HOS 300).

ECN 410: Resource Economics
3 Credit Hours Fall Sem.

This course describes several conceptual tools and the conventional analytical framework used to characterize the optimal allocation of natural resources over time. While neo-classical resource economics forms the focus, an important component of the course includes an introduction to the field of ecological economics and the three-fold framework of resource management decisions (biophysical constraints and opportunities, economic feasibility, and institutional acceptability). The goal is to enable students to understand and appreciate the economic component of a sustainable relationship between the natural environment system and the political and economic systems of the global society. (3 hours lecture). Prerequisite: Microeconomics (ECN 102).

FIN 310: Finance
3 Credit Hours

This course presents detailed financial concepts as applied to both corporate and entrepreneurial business environments. The course will cover financial theory and applications using case studies. The course will address those issues of finance that apply to today's business, such as ratios, liquidity, profitability, financial forecasting, operating and financial leverage, etc. (3 hours lecture). Prerequisite: Quantitative Foundation, or ACC 101 Financial Accounting

MGT 101: Introduction to Entrepreneurship
3 Credit Hours Spring Sem.

A modern small-business course that focuses on the traits and methods of management required of successful owner/operators in today's business environment. Students will explore why some entrepreneurs fail while others succeed repeatedly. Additionally, the students will learn how to assess their chances for success by discovering how to recognize their own strengths and weaknesses. This course is primarily for non-majors, or transfer business students. (3 hours lecture).

MGT 160 & 161: Foundational Entrepreneurship I & II
3 Credit Hours Fall & Spring Semesters respectively

In this year-long, hands-on course, student teams propose, plan and launch their own campus-based entrepreneurial venture. General management issues integrating marketing, financial, and management functions are experienced from the perspective of the entrepreneur or business owner. The entrepreneurial process is investigated, including entrepreneurial characteristics, small business trends, start-up and growth strategies, and common problems facing small business owners and entrepreneurs. The goal is for students to learn not only what strategic challenges entrepreneurs face in the launch and growth of their businesses, but also how entrepreneurs effectively launch and grow their companies using various strategies. (3 hours lecture).

MGT 200: Principles of Management
3 Credit Hours Spring Sems.

This course is designed to introduce students to the management functions of planning, organizing, leading, and controlling. Management theory is examined from an historical perspective and principles are applied using the systems approach and contingency as related to contemporary management practice. Students focus on industry examples and problem solving. (3 hours lecture)

MGT 201: Business Law
3 Credit Hours Fall/Spring Sems.

An introductory course designed to develop a basic understanding of the legal aspects of business. The functions and operations of the court system are discussed. Formation of the single proprietorship, partnership, and the corporation types of business are examined. Contracts, their formation, legal effect, and discharge; trust and agency; employer-employee relationships; and government regulation are also discussed. (3 hours lecture).

MGT 250: Sustainable Practices in Entrepreneurship
3 Credit Hours

This course relates how business can cut costs, reduce risk, increase revenue and create strong branding and business presence by incorporating environmental and social consciousness into their economic practices. This course will cover long-term economic sustainability, recycling, reusing, and limiting waste as management and marketing strategies. It will explain how to compute carbon emissions and the cost that incurs to the business. It will address how savings can be obtained through a change in business operations. Finally, it will explore the affect businesses that practice social consciousness have on communities. (3 hours lecture)

MGT 306: Business Ethics and Decision Making
3 Credit Hours Spring Sems.

This course provides an opportunity to participate in a series of business simulations that demonstrate a wide array of business issues and business decision making. The course will also focus on debate of ethical issues in business. Particular emphasis will be given to businesses with entrepreneurial roots. Concepts including ethical reasoning, critical thinking, strategic thinking and professional articulation of personal ideologies will serve as a backdrop for the class. Each class session will be a blend of various learning methods, including: readings, videos, lectures, individual/group experiential exercises, informal debates, etc. The goal is for students to learn not only what is involved in ethical decision making, but also how ethical decision making can be effectively used. (3 hours lecture). Prerequisite: Junior standing or permission of Dean.

MGT 310: Human Resource Management
3 Credit Hours Fall/Spring Sems.

The study of human resource management as it relates to the contemporary employment environment. Human resources planning is emphasized and job planning, job design, recruitment, selection, hiring, training, evaluation, promotion, compensation systems and termination are discussed. Leadership skills are developed, and motivation theory is examined. The role of labor unions is discussed, and legislative requirements affecting employment practices are examined. (3 hours lecture). Prerequisite: Junior standing.

MGT 320: The Family Enterprise
3 Credit Hours Fall Sem.

More than 80% of the businesses in the United States are private entrepreneurships. Although there is a preponderance of "flag" brands throughout this country, the lifeblood of free enterprise is still the family operation. The blend of family values, family systems, and business operations can lead to a very challenging environment for ownership. The course will focus not only on the systems necessary to run a family business, but also on the psychological, human issues that inevitably arise. (3 hours lecture). Prerequisite: Junior standing.

MGT 325: Franchising
3 Credit Hours

Franchising provides many with an opportunity to reach the "American Dream" of becoming an entrepreneur. Tying in with a "flag" operation allows private entrepreneurs to take advantage of the experience and image that a brand brings to the table. For the small firm with multiple outlets, the opportunity to continue expansion and gain substantial market share through franchising a concept is quite enticing. This course offers students an opportunity to become familiar with the systems, legal issues, financing opportunities, and strategies for promotion that exist in the U.S. for franchise concepts. (3 hours lecture). Prerequisite: Junior standing.

MGT 330: Operations Management
3 Credit Hours

This course addresses the management of operations in manufacturing and service firms. Diverse activities, such as determining the size and type of production process, purchasing the appropriate raw materials, planning and scheduling the flow of materials a