Course Descriptions

Most courses listed in this catalogue have a designation indicating the marking period (normally the semester) when offered. These designations are Fall, Spring and Summer. Due to the dynamic nature of the College's academic programs, these designations should be used only as guides. For specific and current information, search for courses in the PowerCampus SelfService system. Guests and Visitors can log in as a Visitor and are able to search for course sections for a given semester. Prerequisites for courses must be satisfactorily completed prior to enrollment in the listed course.

Baking

BAK 101: Principles of Baking
2 Credit Hours Fall Sem.

This course introduces the students to the foundations of baking. Topics covered include weights and measures, formula conversion, scaling, basic baking chemistry, mixing techniques, yeast breads, quick breads, short doughs, cookie doughs, and basic cakes.

BAK 102: Baking Block One
3 Credit Hours Fall Sem.

Baking students will be introduced to quantity production of a variety of baked goods found in a retail bakery operation. Students will begin to develop an understanding of how a retail bakery works by rotating through various positions during production. Under supervision, students will produce products for their retail bakery outlet, the food service on campus, and a limited number of wholesale accounts. Students will be introduced to various equipment and tools specific to a retail bakery, restaurant bakery and/or small hotel bakery operation. Students will learn the use of a beam balance and platform-type scale. Students will observe demonstrations in basic cake decorating and simple ways of finishing products for a retail operation. They will be taught various production methods used for cakes, quick breads, yeast breads, rolls, sweet dough and Danish production.

BAK 103: Pastry Block Two
3 Credit Hours Fall Sem.

Students will be introduced to artisan bread production and a more advanced variety of pastries. In this hands-on unit, the students will develop a proficiency in working with puff pastry, pate a choux, tarts, cake decorating, icings, fillings and simple cold desserts. Prerequisite: Baking Block One (BAK 102).

BAK 104: Baking Block Three
3 Credit Hours Spring Sem.

In this production lab, students will use the knowledge and skills learned in Principles of Restaurant Desserts (BAK 140) to raise their level of proficiency in working with pastry basics, tarts and flans, specialty cakes and gateaux, Bavarians and mousses, basic sugar work and decorative work with chocolate. Prerequisites: Baking Block One (BAK 102) and Pastry Block Two (BAK 103).

BAK 105: Baking Block Four
3 Credit Hours Spring Sem.

In this production lab, students will show a more advanced variety of cakes and pastries, that include work with mousse, Bavarians, hippen and tuile cookies, as well as sugar and chocolate work, truffles and molding chocolates. Prerequisite: Baking Block Three (BAK 104).

BAK 121: Retail Operations Management
2 Credit Hours Fall/Spring Sems.

This course focuses on the advertising and merchandising of a retail bakery and the baked goods produced. Students will learn the formula costing of bakery products produced, sales and merchandising, inventory and ordering skills, coffee brewing, costing of beverages sold and measurement of customer satisfaction.

BAK 130: Bakery/Café Facilities Operations
1 Credit Hour Spring Sem.

This course will provide a student with an understanding of the knowledge and skills required for the successful operation of a retail bakery/café. The major project for this course is the design of a footprint for a retail bakery/café to include the development of a business plan, a sales plan and an operational budget. Prerequisite: Retail Operations Management (BAK 121).

BAK 140: Principles of Restaurant Desserts
3 Credit Hours Spring Sem.

This course introduces the baking student to the art of restaurant desserts and dessert presentation. The student will, through demos and hands-on application, begin to develop the skill necessary to plate and serve attractive desserts with appropriate sauces and garnishes. Prerequisite: Principles of Baking (BAK 101).

BAK 150: Foundations of Baking
4 Credit Hours Fall/Spring Sems.

In this laboratory course, the student will be exposed to a foundational array of baking preparations and skills. The student will be exposed to quick breads; yeast-raised products including artisan breads; pies, tarts, cookies, and cakes; and introductory pastry items such as pâte à choux, puff pastry, and phyllo dough, as well as custards, fillings, and cold dessert sauces. Additional emphasis will be placed on formula conversion, scaling, and mixing techniques that differentiate baking from cooking.

BAK 160: Foundations of Baking I
4 Credit Hours Fall Sems.

In this laboratory course the student will be exposed to a foundational array of baking methods, procedures and techniques. The student will be introduced to yeast risen dough, quick breads and introductory pastry items. Emphasis will be placed on formula conversion, food cost, scaling and mixing methods. Students will begin preparation of professional baking career portfolio. This course may use alcoholic beverages to flavor production items.

BAK 165: Quantity Baking I
4 Credit Hours Fall Sem.

A lecture/laboratory course that introduces the foundations of quantity baking. Utilizing foundational baking skills from BAK 160, students will learn techniques and theory regarding formula conversion and quantity scaling and production. Students will begin to develop an understanding of how a retail bakery operates through rotation of various positions during production. Products produced will be utilized for retail and wholesale sales. Prerequisites: Foundations of Baking (BAK 160)

BAK 232: Advanced Patisserie
3 Credit Hours Fall/Spring/Sum Sems.

A lecture/laboratory class that focuses on the preparation of classical pastries and contemporary restaurant desserts. Students will learn the techniques and procedures used in the production of European-style tortes, petit fours sec and glace, Bavarians, mousse, poached fruits, and confections. Strong emphasis will be placed on piping techniques and styles used in decorating cakes and desserts. Prerequisite: Baking Block One (BAK 102) or permission of the instructor and/or Dean of the Division.

BAK 242: Commercial Baking Block
4 Credit Hours Summer Sem.

An on-the-job training module that prepares the students to produce a standard array of baked goods found in most bakeshops and hotel/restaurant pastry shops. Students will learn to prepare the following items in a volume format: breads, rolls, quick breads, donuts, Danish pastries, puff pastry desserts, pâte à choux, hippen cookies, cakes, tortes, mousse, Bavarians, fruit fillings, cheesecake, specialty cookies, and basic work with chocolate. Prerequisite: BAK 150 Foundations in Baking or permission of the instructor and/or Dean of the Division.

BAK 260: Foundations of Pastry Arts and Baking II
4 Credit Hours Spring Sem.

Based on foundational competencies achieved in Foundations of Baking 150 students will build upon learned concepts and be exposed to an advanced array of baking methods, procedures and techniques. The student will be introduced to laminated dough, tarts, pâte à choux mousses, Bavarians, basic dessert sauces. Introduction of dessert plating and presentation as well as advanced cake decoration will also be included. This course may use alcoholic beverages to flavor production items. Prerequisites: Foundations of Baking (BAK 160).

BAK 265: Quantity Baking II
4 Credit Hours

A lecture/laboratory course that reinforces the foundational quantity baking skills obtained in Introduction to Quantity Baking I and Foundations of Baking I. Students will prepare artisan style yeasted products, laminated dough and a variety of additional retail and wholesale products. Pre- requisites: Foundations of Baking I (BAK 160) and Introduction to Quantity Baking I (BAK 165)

BAK 270: International Baking and Pastry
4 Credit Hours Fall/Spring Sems.

A lecture/laboratory class that focuses on the preparation of classical pastries and contemporary restaurant desserts.  Students will learn the techniques, methods and procedures used in the production of International style tortes, petits fours sec & glacé, frozen desserts. Strong emphasis will be placed on plating and presentation techniques. Students will explore the factors that have had an affect on the evolution of dessert pastries in a variety of countries. These factors include geography and climate; historical and political events and various cultural and religious influences. Prerequisites: Foundations of Baking I (BAK 160), Foundations in Baking II (BAK 260)

BAK 275: Confections and Decorative Work
4 Credit Hours Fall/Spring Sems.

A lecture/laboratory class that focuses on the preparation of confections and contemporary restaurant desserts.  Students will learn the techniques, methods and procedures used in the production of petits fours sec & glacé, confections, and decorative finishing work, including, but not limited to, chocolate and sugar.  Strong emphasis will be placed on presentation techniques. Prerequisites: Foundations of Baking I (BAK 160), Foundations in Baking II (BAK 260)

BAK 280: Retail Practical Experience
6 Credit Hours Fall/Spring Sems.

This course focuses on the advertising, merchandising and management of a retail bakery and the baked goods produced. Each student will act as General Manager of the bakery operation during rotation through course positions. Students will utilize previously learned formula food costing and be responsible for sales, marketing, inventory and ordering as well as labor cost control techniques regarding retail and wholesale operations. The measurement of customer satisfaction will also be focused upon. Prerequisites: Foundations of Baking I (BAK 160), Foundations in Baking II (BAK 260), Introduction to Quantity Baking I (BAK 165) and Introduction to Quantity Baking II (BAK 265).

BAK 295: Baking Externship
6 Credit Hours As Required

Students will complete a minimum of a semester of bakery industry experience. Students will sign a contractual agreement with an externship site. The following options are available: 1) Competitive participation in one of the externships developed by the College; or 2) Independent externship in the industry secured by the student that meets the approval of the Program Coordinator. Verified work experience of one year prior to enrollment at Paul Smith's may be substituted for either option, providing that experience is comparable and applicable to the student's major (see Externship Verification Process section). Enrollment in either of the two options requires a cumulative GPA of 2.00 or better. Grading is pass/fail based on completion of the contractual agreement with the externship property and adherence to their rules and regulations of employment as well as to Paul Smith's College rules of student conduct.

Business

ACC 101: Financial Accounting
3 Credit Hours Fall/Spring Sems.

Students utilize the rules of debits/credits in preparing the step-by-step process incorporated in a full accounting cycle. Analysis and preparation of basic financial statements are included. Students will be able to complete an in-depth accounting of certain assets and liabilities. (3 hours lecture).

ACC 102: Managerial Accounting
3 Credit Hours Spring Sem.

Study of the principles of financial accounting begun in Financial Accounting (ACC 101) is continued, including in-depth studies of cash flows, international accounting practices, and corporate structure. A foundation of managerial accounting is presented, including standard costing, budgeting, profit planning, break-even analysis, and responsibility accounting in decision-making situations. (3 hours lecture). Prerequisite: Financial Accounting (ACC 101).

ACC 301: Small Business Accounting
3 Credit Hours

This course will familiarize students with accounting principles and practices applicable to small business organizations. Various business models will be explored. Students will analyze and maintain financial information using small business accounting software and assess the financial implications of small business decision-making. (3 hours lecture). Prerequisite: Junior Standing and Financial Accounting (ACC 101).

ECN 101: Macroeconomics
3 Credit Hours Fall/Spring Sem.

An examination of macroeconomics, including an introduction to economic systems, money and banking, monetary and fiscal policy, economic growth, and the theories and measurement of national income, employment and international trade. (3 hours lecture).

ECN 102: Microeconomics
3 Credit Hours Fall/Spring Sems.

Explores the theory of the firm and consumer behavior within a market system. Emphasis is placed on the relationship between market structure and price and output determination. Current economic problems are used to clarify the development and application of economic models. (3 hours lecture).

ECN 400: The Global Market
3 Credit Hours Fall Sem.

Students will develop an understanding of the global nature of all business and how much of our future lies outside the boundaries of the United States. This course will evaluate recent paradigm shifts from isolationism to regionalized and global economics. Additionally, students will reflect on agreements that have forced the issues of the global market into political debate. (3 hours lecture). Prerequisites: Macroeconomics (ECN 101) or The Service Economy (HOS 300).

ECN 410: Resource Economics
3 Credit Hours Fall Sem.

This course describes several conceptual tools and the conventional analytical framework used to characterize the optimal allocation of natural resources over time. While neo-classical resource economics forms the focus, an important component of the course includes an introduction to the field of ecological economics and the three-fold framework of resource management decisions (biophysical constraints and opportunities, economic feasibility, and institutional acceptability). The goal is to enable students to understand and appreciate the economic component of a sustainable relationship between the natural environment system and the political and economic systems of the global society. (3 hours lecture). Prerequisite: Microeconomics (ECN 102).

FIN 310: Finance
3 Credit Hours

This course presents detailed financial concepts as applied to both corporate and entrepreneurial business environments. The course will cover financial theory and applications using case studies. The course will address those issues of finance that apply to today's business, such as ratios, liquidity, profitability, financial forecasting, operating and financial leverage, etc. (3 hours lecture). Prerequisite: Quantitative Foundation, or ACC 101 Financial Accounting

MGT 101: Introduction to Entrepreneurship
3 Credit Hours Spring Sem.

A modern small-business course that focuses on the traits and methods of management required of successful owner/operators in today's business environment. Students will explore why some entrepreneurs fail while others succeed repeatedly. Additionally, the students will learn how to assess their chances for success by discovering how to recognize their own strengths and weaknesses. This course is primarily for non-majors, or transfer business students. (3 hours lecture).

MGT 160 & 161: Foundational Entrepreneurship I & II
3 Credit Hours Fall & Spring Semesters respectively

In this year-long, hands-on course, student teams propose, plan and launch their own campus-based entrepreneurial venture. General management issues integrating marketing, financial, and management functions are experienced from the perspective of the entrepreneur or business owner. The entrepreneurial process is investigated, including entrepreneurial characteristics, small business trends, start-up and growth strategies, and common problems facing small business owners and entrepreneurs. The goal is for students to learn not only what strategic challenges entrepreneurs face in the launch and growth of their businesses, but also how entrepreneurs effectively launch and grow their companies using various strategies. (3 hours lecture).

MGT 200: Principles of Management
3 Credit Hours Spring Sems.

This course is designed to introduce students to the management functions of planning, organizing, leading, and controlling. Management theory is examined from an historical perspective and principles are applied using the systems approach and contingency as related to contemporary management practice. Students focus on industry examples and problem solving. (3 hours lecture)

MGT 201: Business Law
3 Credit Hours Fall/Spring Sems.

An introductory course designed to develop a basic understanding of the legal aspects of business. The functions and operations of the court system are discussed. Formation of the single proprietorship, partnership, and the corporation types of business are examined. Contracts, their formation, legal effect, and discharge; trust and agency; employer-employee relationships; and government regulation are also discussed. (3 hours lecture).

MGT 250: Sustainable Practices in Entrepreneurship
3 Credit Hours

This course relates how business can cut costs, reduce risk, increase revenue and create strong branding and business presence by incorporating environmental and social consciousness into their economic practices. This course will cover long-term economic sustainability, recycling, reusing, and limiting waste as management and marketing strategies. It will explain how to compute carbon emissions and the cost that incurs to the business. It will address how savings can be obtained through a change in business operations. Finally, it will explore the affect businesses that practice social consciousness have on communities. (3 hours lecture)

MGT 306: Business Ethics and Decision Making
3 Credit Hours Spring Sems.

This course provides an opportunity to participate in a series of business simulations that demonstrate a wide array of business issues and business decision making. The course will also focus on debate of ethical issues in business. Particular emphasis will be given to businesses with entrepreneurial roots. Concepts including ethical reasoning, critical thinking, strategic thinking and professional articulation of personal ideologies will serve as a backdrop for the class. Each class session will be a blend of various learning methods, including: readings, videos, lectures, individual/group experiential exercises, informal debates, etc. The goal is for students to learn not only what is involved in ethical decision making, but also how ethical decision making can be effectively used. (3 hours lecture). Prerequisite: Junior standing or permission of Dean.

MGT 310: Human Resource Management
3 Credit Hours Fall/Spring Sems.

The study of human resource management as it relates to the contemporary employment environment. Human resources planning is emphasized and job planning, job design, recruitment, selection, hiring, training, evaluation, promotion, compensation systems and termination are discussed. Leadership skills are developed, and motivation theory is examined. The role of labor unions is discussed, and legislative requirements affecting employment practices are examined. (3 hours lecture). Prerequisite: Junior standing.

MGT 320: The Family Enterprise
3 Credit Hours Fall Sem.

More than 80% of the businesses in the United States are private entrepreneurships. Although there is a preponderance of "flag" brands throughout this country, the lifeblood of free enterprise is still the family operation. The blend of family values, family systems, and business operations can lead to a very challenging environment for ownership. The course will focus not only on the systems necessary to run a family business, but also on the psychological, human issues that inevitably arise. (3 hours lecture). Prerequisite: Junior standing.

MGT 325: Franchising
3 Credit Hours

Franchising provides many with an opportunity to reach the "American Dream" of becoming an entrepreneur. Tying in with a "flag" operation allows private entrepreneurs to take advantage of the experience and image that a brand brings to the table. For the small firm with multiple outlets, the opportunity to continue expansion and gain substantial market share through franchising a concept is quite enticing. This course offers students an opportunity to become familiar with the systems, legal issues, financing opportunities, and strategies for promotion that exist in the U.S. for franchise concepts. (3 hours lecture). Prerequisite: Junior standing.

MGT 330: Operations Management
3 Credit Hours

This course addresses the management of operations in manufacturing and service firms. Diverse activities, such as determining the size and type of production process, purchasing the appropriate raw materials, planning and scheduling the flow of materials and the nature and content of inventories, assuring product quality, and deciding on the production hardware and how it gets used, comprise this function of the company. Managing operations well requires both strategic and tactical skills. The course will cover such topics as: process analysis, workforce issues, materials management, quality and productivity, technology, and strategic planning, together with relevant analytical techniques. This course will provide a survey of these issues. (3 hours lecture). Prerequisite: Junior standing.

MGT 360: Entrepreneurial Practicum
3 Credit Hours

This on-the-job experience is designed to provide practical application of the knowledge gained during the student's first two years of study in Business Management and Entrepreneurial Studies. Students may choose to work in an entrepreneurial setting within the North Country or in a variety of other business practices. Students will be exposed to numerous aspects of business development, customer service and human resources and operations management. Students will write a business plan for the business and share it with the practicum participants. Prerequisite: BMES junior standing and a cumulative GPA of 2.00.

MGT 400: Strategic Planning & Policy
3 Credit Hours Spring Sem.

An inter-disciplinary senior seminar emphasizing the analysis of complex business problems in domestic and global settings. Using a strategic management framework, this course integrates core business knowledge across all functional and decision-support areas to arrive at economically-sound, ethically-principled, value-adding solutions. This case-based seminar will focus on issues of venture capital and other forms of capitalization and enterprise growth; initial public offerings (IPO's); small business management problems and entrepreneurial strategy. (3 hours lecture). Prerequisites: Senior standing and completion of all required BMES courses through the third year of study.

MGT 460: Capstone Consulting Project
3 Credit Hours Spring Sem.

Student consultants are assigned an entrepreneurial client and will develop a formal "client-deliverable" project, such as a strategic marketing plan, a business plan or a financial plan. This client project will reflect the research completed in Capstone Research Methods Seminar (SOC 460) in the previous semester. This consulting service will be provided to clients pro bono to further our stewardship goals for the entrepreneurial studies students. The project serves as a "capstone" of the BMES program. (3 hours lecture). Prerequisite: Senior standing and completion of Capstone Research Methods Seminar (SOC 460).

MGT 499: Special Topics in Management
3 Credit Hours

Theories of management evolve at an exponential rate. Dealing with the management of people, inside and outside an organization, is complex due to the nature of human behaviors. Organizational structures change as the definition of these organizations mutate in response to economic conditions and the needs of those stakeholders who make the organization breathe. As new approaches rise to the surface, this free-form course will allow members of the faculty to research and present new concepts in management and leadership. ( 3 hours lecture). Prerequisite: Junior standing or permission of the Dean of the Division.

MIS 410: Management Information Systems
3 Credit Hours Fall Sem.

This course guides the student through an overview of the management information systems strategies. Students analyze common MIS problems and the solutions implemented to address them. Common issues associated with managing different components of an information system in an organization are also covered. (3 hours lecture). Prerequisite: Senior standing.

MKT 200: Principles of Marketing
3 Credit Hours Fall/Spring Sems.

Students are introduced to the functions of a marketing system to gain a better understanding of the consumer and industrial market place. Different strategies necessary to market a product or service are discussed from scientific and practical viewpoints. Topics discussed include product planning and development, quality, pricing promotions, and channels of distribution. (3 hours lecture).

MKT 305: Advertising and Promotion
3 Credit Hours Fall Sem.

Students will learn to evaluate advertising as an institution in society and investigate advertising, both as a tool of marketing and as a process of mass communication. Topics such as marketing research, media selection, budget allocation, publicity, and personal selling efforts will be discussed. Through various assigned projects, students will design and produce advertisements in a variety of mediums. (3 hours lecture). Prerequisite: Principles of Marketing (MKT 200)

MKT 310: Retailing
3 Credit Hours .

Consumers still drive the U.S. economy. Retailing today is at an interesting crossroads. As consumers spend ever more of their disposable income, the industry that exchanges that tender for goods is faced with unique opportunities. Franchising, niche marketing, aggressive point-of-sale merchandising, the use of the Internet, and competitive pricing strategies combine to make the exchange of goods for money a complex science. This course will prepare students for entrance into the dynamic, fascinating, psychologically - driven, fast-paced and ever-changing retail business sector. (3 hours lecture). Prerequisite: Principles of Marketing (MKT 200).

Culinary Arts

CUL 101: Professional Cooking Fundamentals I
4 Credit Hours Fall/Spring Sems.

This foundational course focuses on the theory and basic skills associated with professional cooking. It includes the study of the basic tenets of kitchen safety, sanitation, product identification and food service mathematics. The course gives the student the opportunity to develop the practical skills of knife handling, preparation of stocks, soups, sauces, use of herbs, spices and seasonings, basic fabrication techniques, and primary cooking methods.

CUL 102: Professional Cooking Fundamentals II
4 Credit Hours Fall/Spring Sems.

This 1st semester course is a continuation of CUL 101 Professional Cooking Fundamentals I that continues focus on foundational cooking. The student will continue to develop knife skills, the preparation of stocks, soups, sauces and the primary cooking methods through the application of these methods on the preparation of restaurant-plated appetizers and entrees. Product identification, the use of herbs, spices and seasonings and fundamental techniques in fabrication will also be introduced, as well as preliminary baking skills that include the preparation of yeast products and quick breads. This course is competency based in alignment with accreditation requirements of the American Culinary Federation. Prerequisite: Professional Cooking Fundamentals I (CUL 101).

CUL 110: Classical Kitchen
2 Credit Hours Spring Sem.

A lecture/laboratory course designed to develop the student's understanding of the history, preparation, and service of classical French Cuisine. Emphasis will be placed on the works of Auguste Escoffier and Ferdinand Point. Additionally, students will reinforce culinary skills introduced in Foundations of Culinary Preperation I and II. Prerequisites: Professional Cooking Fundamentals I (CUL 101), and Professional Cooking Fundamentals II (CUL 102) or permission of the instructor and/or the Dean of the Division.

CUL 120: The Careerist
3 Credit Hours Fall Sems.

An introductory course designed to assist first-time college students in adjusting to Paul Smith's College and identifying the tolls needed for success, both in college and life. This course is for students who are not required to take General Education courses, but who do need to utilize a variety of current essential career skills applicable to culinary and hospitality organizations. These skills are specifically designed to help those students.

CUL 150: International Cuisine
4 Credit Hours Spring Sem.

A course designed to develop the student's understanding of various international cuisines as well as the contributing historical events, cultures, religions, climates, and topographies that shaped the cuisines. These countries or regions may include, but not be limited to: Japan, Thailand, the Philippines, Mexico, North Africa, the Middle East, Italy, France, China, the Caribbean, Spain, India and Greece. This course is competency based in alignment with accreditation requirements of the American Culinary Federation. Prerequisites: Professional Cooking Fundamentals I (CUL 101), and Professional Cooking Fundamentals II (CUL 102).

CUL 220: Contemporary Cuisine
4 Credit Hours Fall/Spring

This Lecture/Lab course provides an opportunity to synthesize the various techniques that students have learned to date in the program to create various preparations with contemporary applications. Emphasis will be placed on presentation and the introduction of modern plating techniques. Additionally, with the growing awareness that diet plays an important role in physical health, foods prepared will incorporate a lighter and more nutritionally sound approach. Submission of Industry Work Experience portfolio is a requirement of this course. Prerequisite(s): CUL 150 International Cuisine. Co-requisite: CUL 280 Nutrition/Food Science

CUL 230: Food Service Operations Management
3 Credit Hours Fall/Spring/Summer

This course is designed to introduce the student to the relationship between menu development and the financial impact on food service operations. This course walks the student through the development cycle, beginning with the market research process to support functions of purchasing and receiving, storing and requisitions of food and beverage to produce menu items. Students become familiar with management practices related to foodservice operations such as costing recipes, setting appropriate selling prices based on fixed and variable costs and forecasting to determine food and labor needs. This course also addresses the ongoing processes necessary for maintaining overall profitability including the development of a budget, the analysis of financial reports, and the identification of areas requiring corrective action.

CUL 240 Garde Manger & Charcuterie
4 Credit Hours Fall/Spring

A lecture/ lab that focuses on the methods and theories related to cold food preparation, hors d'eourves, display platters, charcuterie, smoking meats, butchering, seafood and preparing centerpieces from edible foodstuffs. Production methods and safe food handling are emphasized. Prerequisite(s): CUL 150 International Cuisine.

CUL 250: Advanced Cooking Techniques
4 Credit Hours Fall/Spring

A course designed to encompass three primary areas of cooking: Garde Manger, Advanced Cooking and Nutrition. Students will become familiar with preparations including, but not limited to, canapés, hors d' oeuvres, complex salads, relishes, dressings and marinades, cold buffet platters, galantines and pâtés and hot food preparations and plate presentations that are aligned with contemporary restaurant concepts. Nutritional preparations of foods and alternative methods designed to retain natural vitamin and mineral contents of food, as well as preparations for an ever-increasing population of consumers interested in low-fat, low-sodium, low-carbohydrate foods and food preparations will be stressed. Prerequisites: Professional Cooking Fundamentals I (CUL 101), and Professional Cooking Fundamentals II (CUL 102).

CUL 260: Commercial Cooking and Catering
6 Credit Hours Fall/Spring/Sum Sems.

This course focuses on practical hands-on training that is the culmination of a culinary student's first year. The course includes the application of culinary techniques, the use and care of equipment, the pressure of à la carte preparation and service, and the effective handling and use of supplies. Students will rotate through various positions in the College- owned and operated Hotel Saranac. Prerequisites: Professional Cooking Fundamentals I (CUL 101), and Professional Cooking Fundamentals II (CUL 102) or permission of the instructor and/or the Dean of the Division.

CUL 280: Nutrition/Food Science
3 Credit Hours Fall/Spring Sems.

This course focuses on the functions that carbohydrates, fats, protein, water, vitamins, and minerals have in the body. The course will include measurement of nutritional status and labels as well as the application of dietary guidelines and recommendations. The student will study human nutritional requirements throughout the life cycle.

CUL 295: Culinary Externship
6 Credit Hours Fall/Spring/Sum Sems.

Students spend a semester or more of food preparation work at a hotel, restaurant, resort, or contract food service operation. Students will sign a contractual agreement with an externship site. The following options are available: 1) Competitive participation in one of the externships developed by the College; or 2) Independent externship in the industry secured by the student that meets the approval of the Dean. Verifiable full-time, work experience of one year or more in the culinary industry, prior to enrollment at Paul Smith's, may be substituted for either option one or two. (See Externship Verification Process section). Enrollment in either of the two options requires a cumulative GPA of 2.00 or better. Grading is Pass/Fail based on completion of the contractual agreement with the externship property and adherence to their rules and regulations of employment as well as to Paul Smith's College rules of student conduct. Prerequisite: One full semester of course work in the Culinary Arts program.

CUL 299: Special Topics in Culinary Arts
3 Credit Hours d.b.a

This course will provide students with an opportunity to study culinary arts topics which are not normally offered. These courses are selected for their potential to contribute both to the professional and intellectual development of students. In most cases, student demand or faculty expertise (or both) are factors which influence the selection and timing of these courses.

CUL 320: American Gastronomy
3 Credit Hours Fall/Spring Sems.

American Gastronomy will focus on research of original native culture, U.S. geography, and indigenous natural resources, all of which have influenced what and how we eat today. Specific historical and cultural events will be tracked to determine their effect on the eating habits of Americans. Students will also examine the impact of European, African, and Asian influences on the evolution of American cuisine. Students will observe and evaluate meals whose roots are ethnically pure and follow the same meals through their evolution to modern times. Development of unique micro-cultures will be studied; specific cuisines will be prepared, and evaluated. Prerequisites: Professional Cooking Fundamentals I (CUL 101), and Professional Cooking Fundamentals II (CUL 102), International Cuisine (Cooking Module #3), and Advanced Cooking Techniques (Cooking Module #4) (CUL 150, CUL 250) or permission of the instructor and/or the Dean of the Division.

CUL 341: Culinary Futures/Food Techniques
4 Credit Hours d.b.a.

A lecture/lab course which will explore current and future trends in restaurant menus, as well as dealing with an understanding of how science and technology are changing the way society and our industry cooks, operates and lives. Through lectures, demonstrations, and hands-on applications, this course will cover a wide and varied array of topics and trends as they evolve and shift in a dynamic industry. Students will be exposed to the methods that chemists and technologists use to present products for market using high-tech emulsifiers, fat substitutes, flavor enhancers, irradiation technology, sous-vide (vacuum cooking) and genetic engineering. Prerequisites: CUL 150 International Cuisine and CUL 250 Advanced Cooking Techniques.

CUL 380: Advanced Kitchen and Menu Management
4 Credit Hours Spring Sem.

A comprehensive lecture/laboratory course that will require the student to research contemporary cuisines, analyze demographic data, and plan and design menus. Students will perform menu tastings, establish standardized recipes, develop training modules and production schedules, and develop labor schedules. Food requisitions will be submitted to support preparation and service of the menus to the public. Prerequisites: Food Service Operations Management (CUL 230), Dining Room and Kitchen Operations (RES 132), and Professional Cooking Fundamentals I (CUL 101), and Professional Cooking Fundamentals II (CUL 102) or permission of the instructor and/or the Dean of the Division.

CUL 499: Special Topics in Culinary Arts
3 Credit Hours d.b.a.

Culinary Arts have become legitimate areas of study that encompass not only technical skills, but also an understanding of history, anthropology, geography, agriculture, customs and language. This special topics course will provide an opportunity for faculty, with unique backgrounds in academic and technical areas of culinary arts, to offer instruction. Sample topics might include: artisan bread baking, chocolate centerpieces, sugar work, ice carving techniques, historical influences of foods on various cultures, the impact of ethnic backgrounds on cuisine, etc. Prerequisite: Junior standing or permission of the Dean of the Division.

Environmental Studies

EST 101: Intro to Environmental Studies
3 Credit Hours Fall Sem.

This course includes lecture, discussion, and experiential components, which provide students an introduction to the field of environmental studies, both generally and specifically, at Paul Smith's College. Students examine a variety of issues in the Adirondack region in an interdisciplinary manner and become acquainted with the complex, multi-dimensional nature of environmental problems and solutions. Various faculty involved in the Environmental Studies Program are involved with this course as guest speakers, leaders of field trips, etc., so that students have an opportunity to meet the members of the PSC ES Program. (3 hours lecture).

EST 200: Nature and Culture
4 Credit Hours

This course introduces students to major aspects of the interaction between human beings and the environment. Focus is on the historical and cultural connections between people and the environment. Human conceptions about the nature of nature, the wilderness, conservation, parks, recreation, etc. are discussed along with the shaping roles of religion, philosophy, art, literature, pop culture, and politics. Among the diverse topics covered are urban and rural ecologies; communication and sense of place; gender, ethnicity, and class; the arts and artists; indigenous cultures; ethics, law, and the education system; the impact of media in popular culture; agriculture, business and tourism.

EST 210: Comparative Environmental Studies Practicum
3 Credit Hours J-term or Summer

This course consists of a two-week long trip to a location in the US or abroad where students will have an opportunity to directly experience and examine environmental issues that are significantly different from those of the Adirondack region. Interdisciplinary and comparative perspectives on environmental issues are emphasized. This course is conducted entirely off campus and entails additional fees above tuition.

EST 300: Ecological Change and Society
3 Credit Hours Fall Sem.

This course translates, applies and interprets critical concepts from global change science so that the non-scientific community might become better informed in the policy decision- making arena. Students will examine the natural and anthropogenic changes taking place in the totality of the earth's environment across spatial and temporal scales. Students will deepen their understandings of interrelationships and connections between biogeochemical processes in various parts of the earth system, and discuss change mechanisms, tipping points and possible mitigation and adaptation solutions to the tremendous challenges posed by anthropogenic climate change. The course will examine long-term records of global change, as well as focusing on near-past human societies that have successfully or unsuccessfully adapted to changing environmental conditions. We will assess global change models for implications regarding vulnerability of human society and non-human ecosystems to potential change and for insight into strategies for future sustainability

EST 310: Environmental History & Social Justice
3 Credit Hours Spring Sem.

This course looks at the historical, cultural and ecological basis for our changing concepts of the environment. The course provides an overview of US environmental history in an effort to understand the interactions, interdependencies and changes implicit in the relationship between human culture and the environment. American history is characterized by the paradox of the bounty of the continent's vast natural resources and subsequent establishment of natural institutions, such as our National Park System, and the sweeping and often catastrophic ecological changes wrought on the landscape by the process of Manifest Destiny and industrialization. Environmental history combines political, social, ecological, artistic and literary forms to clarify how our culture's concept of the environment has changed over time.

EST 320: Global Environmental Studies Seminar
3 Credit Hours Spring Sem.

Environmental Studies majors take this course during their junior year. It takes a top-down look at global environmental issues, and thus it complements the bottom-up, Adirondack-based perspective of Introduction to Environmental Studies. Interdisciplinary approaches to the study and management of environmental issues are emphasized. As a seminar, this course puts a great emphasis on student participation and initiative. Prerequisites: Introduction to Environmental Studies (EST 101) or Politics of the Environment (POL 202).

EST 400: Environmental Studies Research Seminar
4 Credit Hours Spring Sem

The Environmental Studies Research Seminar is a culminating endeavor based upon students' course work, reading, interests and experience. Students in the seminar undertake a faculty-selected and directed research project. Students will work in small groups, and individually within their group, toward the completion of the overall class goal. Students are required to prepare a substantial written report demonstrating the students' project focus, as well as the integration of their work, and an oral presentation for their group. Prerequisite: Global Environmental Studies Seminar (EST 320).

Fisheries and Wildlife Sciences

FWS 101: Introduction to Fisheries and Wildlife Management
3 Credit Hours Fall Sem.

This course will serve as a primer to students in the Fisheries and Wildlife Sciences Program. Its purpose is to create the awareness that management of fisheries and wildlife resources is firmly steeped in the biological sciences. The basic science behind managing populations of birds, mammals, and fish will be explored (data collection, analyses, presentation). Furthermore, the student will be exposed to reality of the roles that communication, human dimensions, and policy play in fisheries and wildlife management. (2 hours lecture, 3 hours lab).

FWS 201: Introduction to Wildlife Management
3 Credit Hours Spring Sem.

This course provides an introduction to the principles involved in the maintenance of sustainable wildlife populations. The focus of the course is in two major areas: (1) the ecological and biological principles underlying wildlife conservation, such as habitat, population dynamics, and animal behavior, and (2) the role of humans in wildlife conservation, including both the effects of wildlife exploitation and the effects of various restoration and management practices. The major emphasis of the course is on, but not completely limited to, terrestrial vertebrate animals. (3 hours lecture).

FWS 210: Wildlife Law Enforcement
3 Credit Hours d.b.a.

This course introduces students to fish and wildlife policy and law enforcement. The course will focus on the development of fish and wildlife policy, legislative law, agency rule-making, relevant court decisions, and wildlife law enforcement issues and techniques. Additionally, the course will provide students insight into wildlife conservation law enforcement as a career choice.

FWS 270: Natural History of North American Vertebrates
3 Credit Hours Fall Sem.

This course introduces students to the biodiversity and natural history of vertebrates that live in North America. The focus will be on fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals with an emphasis on vertebrates that live in the eastern United States. Students will be able to identify vertebrates as well as demonstrate an understanding of vertebrate anatomy, physiology, behavior, reproduction, life history and ecology. (3 hours lecture). Prerequisites: Biology I and II (BIO 101, BIO 102).

FWS 320: Techniques in Wildlife Management
3 Credit Hours Fall Sem.

This course will address techniques used to reduce, maintain and increase wildlife population densities. Techniques that directly impact the organisms themselves as well as techniques that affect organisms through manipulation of habitat will be covered. The focus is primarily on mammals, but birds, amphibians, and reptiles will also be included to some extent. (2 hours lecture, 3 hours lab). Prerequisite: Biology I and II (BIO 101, BIO 102) and General Ecology (BIO 210) .

FWS 331: Fisheries Techniques
3 Credit Hours Fall Sem.

This course provides laboratory and field experience in fish collection, identification, anatomy, and fishery monitoring and evaluation techniques including netting, electrofishing, and quantitative fishing analysis. Emphasis in lecture is placed on the theory, principles and practices of fisheries science and monitoring and evaluation techniques used in population dynamics studies and management of streams, ponds, and lakes. New York Department of Environmental Conservation practices of fisheries administration in the Adirondacks including the use of hatcheries and the use of rotenone will also be explored. This course provides essential knowledge for students interested in Natural Resources programs. (2 hours lecture, 3 hours lab). Prerequisites: Biology I or II (BIO 101, 102), or Introduction to Fisheries & Wildlife Management FWS 101 or equivalents.

FWS 380: Fisheries Management
3 Credit Hours Spring Sem.

This course provides a basic understanding of fisheries management principles. Emphasis in lecture is placed on the theory, principles and practices of fisheries science and management of streams, ponds and lakes. The course will cover fisheries assessments, population estimation techniques, age and growth studies, watershed evaluation, stream and lake improvement, fish life history features, and fish stocking and propagation. New York State Department of Environmental Conservation practices of fisheries administration and management in the Adirondacks an Federal Fish and Wildlife Services management of the Lake Champlain Basin will also be explored. (3 hours lecture). Prerequisites: Introduction to Fisheries & Wildlife Management FWS 101 or Biology I or II (BIO 101, BIO 102).

FWS 395: Wildlife and Fisheries Externship
3 Credit Hours d.b.a

The student obtains fisheries or wildlife research or management experience with an organization such as a governmental agency or private conservation/environmental group. A sponsoring supervisor in the organization provides a written work plan of the student's activities before the externship begins. The student identifies a faculty mentor at PSC to approve the work plan. The student must secure approval from his/her mentor and advisor prior to registering for the externship. During the externship the student keeps a log. Upon completion of the externship, the student submits a written report and an oral presentation. The student's supervisor suggests a grade to the faculty mentor who assigns a final pass/fail grade. See the Fisheries and Wildlife Externship Approval Form for more information. Credit hours will be determined based on the breadth and depth of the work experience (3 hours lecture). Prerequisites: Biology I and II (BIO 101, BIO 102) and GPA of 2.0 or greater.

FWS 430: Aquatic Plants
3 Credit Hours

This course introduces students to the biology, ecology and phytogeography of aquatic plants with a specific focus on submersed aquatic vegetation. The management of aquatic nuisance species will be covered in detail. Students will collect, identify, and preserve aquatic plants common to the Adirondacks and prepare a final collection to be evaluated. One all day Saturday field trip is required. (2 hour lecture and 3 hour lab) Prerequisites: BIO 101 and BIO 102 and BIO 210: General Ecology. LAS

FWS 470: Wildlife Management
3 Credit Hours Spring Sem.

This advanced course deals with the principles that guide natural resource professionals in management of wildlife, including those used in management of game animals for harvest, in maintenance of and restoration of viable populations, and in ecosystem management. The historical and philosophical context for these approaches is emphasized. The course also deals with application of principles to actual problems in management and conservation. Applications are illustrated with the extensive use of case studies. (3 hours lecture). Prerequisites: Biology I and II (BIO 101, BIO 102) and General Ecology (BIO 210).

FWS 480: Fisheries Biology and Management
3 Credit Hours Spring Sem.

Fisheries management is based on the use of scientific information, communication skills, and an understanding of human dimensions to manipulate aquatic populations, aquatic habitats, and humans to sustain or increase the benefits of fishery resources. In this class, students will become intimate with an understanding of the science foundation beneath fisheries management that can help humans make informed decisions. Students will 1) study the scientific approaches used to assess fish population and community dynamics, 2) review the components and managing limiting factors, and 3) learn the historic and contemporary roles of humans in traditional and emerging management approaches in fisheries protection, maintenance, and restoration. Class discussion of case histories will provide focal points for developing an understanding of the complexity of fisheries management. (3 hours lecture). Prerequisites: Biology I and II (BIO 101, BIO 102), and General Ecology (BIO 210).

Forestry

FOR 101: Introduction to Forestry
3 Credit Hours Fall/Spring Sems.

A lecture and laboratory course which gives students a broad survey of forestry history, federal, state and private forest management, timber harvesting practices, outdoor recreation, wildlife, silviculture, mensuration, and aspects of the forest products industry. The laboratory is designed to get students into the woods and introduce the use of hand tools, saws, mechanized equipment and safe woodworking practices. The course covers procedures for measuring trees, wildlife habitat improvement, scaling, and running a compass line. (2 hours lecture, 4 hours lab).

FOR 110: Dendrology
3 Credit Hours Fall/Spring Sems.

The identification, taxonomy, ecology, geographic ranges and uses of trees of North America with emphasis on the commercially-important species. Field trips survey native Adirondack trees, shrubs, and some introduced ornamentals. (2 hours lecture, 3 hours lab).

FOR 120: Insects and Diseases of Trees
3 Credit Hours Fall Sem.

This course presents the basic terminology and principles pertaining to the study of entomology and tree pathology. The taxonomy and morphology of insects will be covered, along with the categories and characteristics of diseases that affect trees. The students will learn to identify common insects and diseases of trees. Various control strategies will be presented with an emphasis on environmentally-sound methods. (2 hours lecture, 2½ hours lab).

FOR 130: Landscape Fundamentals and Interpretation
2 Credit Hours Spring Sem.

Emphasis is placed on the principles of design, installation, and care of ornamental trees with associated plants. Instruction is provided for student-produced planting designs. The designs will take into consideration buildings, paths of movement, soils and various plant features such as color, size, shape and texture. (2 hours lecture).

FOR 140: Arboriculture I
3 Credit Hours Spring Sem.

The first of a two-course sequence concerning the discussion and practical training laboratory application of the skills needed to practice arboriculture. Material covered will include tree physiology, tree surgery, tree removal methods, fertilization, and general maintenance practices of shade and ornamental trees. (2 hours lecture, 6 hours lab). Prerequisite: Insects and Diseases of Trees (FOR 120) or permission of the instructor.

FOR 150: Sawmill Lecture
3 Credit Hours Spring Sem.

This course is designed to train forestry students in the design and operation of a circular saw sawmill and the role of sawmilling in today's forest industries. Students learn how to determine saw diameters, tooth style, gauges, and horsepower requirements for a variety of situations based on species and average largest log processed. Methods of determining sawmill efficiencies are discussed in detail. The course trains the students in the hand lens identification of approximately 35 northeastern species of woods, hardwood and softwood lumber and log grading, and the maintenance of sawmill machinery. (2 hours lecture, 3 hours lab).

FOR 200: Forest Mapping
2 Credit Hours

This course will cover the basics of interpreting, using and creating maps for a variety of forestry, recreation and natural resource applications. After being introduced to basic map reading skills, such as the use of scales, understanding map symbols and interpreting topographic contours, students will learn how to make basic field sketch maps by hand and progress to using and creating maps with computer software including both Computer- Aided Design and Drafting (CADD) and Geographic Information Systems (GIS). While much of the work will be done at drafting tables and computers, field components will include the use of compasses and maps for navigating in the forest, drawing of field sketch maps, and an introduction to the use of Global Positioning Systems (GPS) in the field. (1 hour lecture, 2 hours lab).

FOR 201: Forest Management
3 Credit Hours

This course is designed to teach the fundamentals of decision making in relation to forest management. (2 hour lecture, 4 hours lab). Prerequisites: Silviculture (FOR 260), Mensuration (FOR 241) or permission.

FOR 206: Forest Production Processes
4 Credit Hours Summ Sess.

This course is designed to develop knowledge of and experience in safe and efficient practices related to forest production processes. In addition, students will study the interrelationships between timber and lumber production, including log bucking, scaling and grading, lumber manufacturing and grading, and lumber and grade recovery. The emphasis is on understanding systems related to forest production processes, from harvesting to lumber manufacturing and drying. Prerequisites: Algebra (MAT 125); Dendrology (FOR 110), Introduction to Forestry (FOR 101) or permission.

FOR 210: Equipment: Small Engines Repair
2 Credit Hours Fall Sem.

This course is designed to train forestry students in the operating principles and maintenance of 2-stroke and 4-stroke cycle single cylinder gasoline engines. Lectures, videos, and discussions center on the disassembly, assembly and operating principles of small engines. Students learn the importance of lubricating oils and the application of scheduled maintenance to promote long engine life. (4 hours lab).

FOR 215: Equipment Maintenance: Welding
2 Credit Hours d.b.a.

This course is designed to train forestry students in welding, using oxygen/acetylene cutting, welding and brazing equipment and a variety of electric arc welding processes. Lectures, videos, and discussions are supplemented with applied laboratory activities and experiments. Students are encouraged to learn welding as it applies to future professional plans and the equipment of specific forestry operations. The ability to perform maintenance welding and evaluate the welding of others is emphasized as a potential employment advantage for forestry students. (4 hours lab).

FOR 220: Lumber Manufacturing and Kiln Drying
4 Credit Hours Summer Sess.

This course is designed to train the student in the efficient and safe operation of sawmill and dry kiln facilities. Students will study the inter-relationships of log grading, log break-down into lumber, lumber grading (hardwood and softwood), and proper stacking procedures. The selection of drying schedules, wood/water relationships, kiln sample selection and monitoring, and kiln control will also be studied. (Four 40-hour weeks). Prerequisite: Sawmill Lecture (FOR 150).

FOR 225: Greenhouse-Turf Practice
3 Credit Hours Spring Sem.

Students receive instruction and practical laboratory experiences in various phases of greenhouse management. This includes a study of the construction and function of a greenhouse. Students will learn how to propagate annuals and woody plants from seeds and cuttings. The turf study portion of this course is intended to provide students with a working knowledge of how to install and maintain various types of turf grasses. (2 hours lecture, 2 hours lab). Prerequisite: Enrollment in Urban Tree Management Program, or permission of the instructor.

FOR 230: Forest Health
2 Credit Hours Fall Sem.

This seven-week course is designed to give students an introduction to some of the most important factors that affect the health of forest ecosystems, especially forest fire, insects, and disease. The overall concept of "forest health" is introduced and important concepts of forest ecology that relate to forest health are covered. The bulk of the course is devoted to coverage of particular issues related to forest fire (effects, behavior, and control), insects and disease (major species, their effects, and control) and other factors, such as pollution and deforestation. (3 hours lecture for 7 weeks).

FOR 235: Timber Harvesting
4 Credit Hours Fall Sem.

This course combines class lectures, guest lectures, field trips, and field experience focusing on timber harvesting. General subject areas to be addressed include:

Logging safety: OSHA standard and compliance; safety statistics; liability; workers compensation insurance; logging accident case studies.

Planning and process: timber appraisal and procurement; timber marking; roads, trails and landings; BMPs and stream crossings; log marketing; small-scale and low impact logging; logging plan formats; logging evaluations; non-tractive and other yarding systems: cable, helicopter, and shovel logging.

Timber harvesting effects, efficiency, and analysis: Introduction to time/motion data analysis; machine rate analysis; logging costs and productivity; soil and residual stand effects. Social and regulatory dimensions of timber harvesting: Timber harvesting policy and issues; forest practices regulations; logging workforce attributes and issues; logging aesthetics; attitudes about harvesting. Prerequisites: Introduction to Forestry (FOR 101) and Silviculture (FOR 260), or permission of the instructor.

FOR 240: Forest Mensuration I
2 Credit Hours Summer Sess.

This course introduces the skills needed to measure land and timber resources using tools common in the field of forestry. It involves an introduction to orienteering using a hand compass and pacing, and land measurements using a staff compass and two-chain topographic tape. An introduction to individual tree measurements is completed, along with topographic and aerial photographic interpretation. Basic forest sampling and statistical analysis are introduced in preparation for the final project, in which a timber inventory is planned, executed, and analyzed. (Two 40-hour weeks). Prerequisite: Dendrology (FOR 110).

FOR 241: Forest Mensuration II
4 Credit Hours Fall Sem.

Forest Mensuration II builds on the foundation established in Forest Mensuration I (FOR 240). A variety of timber cruising techniques are discussed, executed, and analyzed, including fixed radius plot sampling, point sampling, timber trespass, continuous forest inventories, and 3-P cruising. Forest inventory skills (e.g., cull identification and estimation, simple linear regression, computer analysis of inventory data and technical report writing) are also emphasized and integrated into field project assignments. The emphasis is on more independent work by students that helps to better simulate working-world conditions and situations, as well as to develop self-confidence and a strong work ethic. (Five 28-hour weeks). Prerequisites: Forest Mensuration I (FOR 240) and Surveying I (SRV 201), or permission of the instructor.

FOR 245: Forest Measurements
3 Credit Hours Spring Sem.

This course introduces the measurement principles and techniques used in timberland inventory, including the use of technical forestry equipment and computers to set up, perform, compute, and analyze timber cruises of different types to determine volumes of merchantable timber in a given stand. Basic statistics, map and aerial photograph interpretation, land area measurements, and forest inventory skills (e.g., cull identification and estimation, simple linear regression and technical report writing) are emphasized and integrated into field-project assignments. (3 hours lecture, 4 hours lab). Prerequisites: Introduction to Forestry (FOR 101) and Dendrology (FOR 110).

FOR 250: Arboriculture II
3 Credit Hours Fall Sem.

This is the second course of a two-course sequence concerned with the care and maintenance of trees. Topics covered will include tree physiology, plant selection, planting site modification, planting guidelines, construction damage to trees, and pest management. The lab sessions will provide the opportunity to apply tree maintenance practices and explore specialized areas of arboriculture, such as hazard tree management and lightning protection of trees. (2 hours lecture, 3 hours lab). Prerequisite: Arboriculture I (FOR 140) or permission of the instructor.

FOR 255: Measurement and Mapping
2 Credit Hours Summ Sess.

Introduces the tools and skills needed to measure land and forest resources, including orienteering, map development and interpretation, and log, tree and forest measurements. Basic forest sampling and statistical analysis are introduced in preparation for a course project involving the planning, execution, analysis, and reporting of a forest inventory. Prerequisite: Introduction to Forestry (FOR 101), Dendrology (FOR 110), College Algebra (MAT 125) or permission

FOR 260: Silviculture
3 Credit Hours Spring Sem.

This course provides a detailed introduction to different silvicultural systems and practices, with an emphasis on the underlying ecological basis of silviculture. While the course is national and even international in scope, it focuses most particularly on the Northeastern U.S. The course makes heavy use of the College's own land and surrounding forests as a "laboratory." A centerpiece of the course is the project in which students are assigned a plot on the Paul Smith's College Forest, for which they develop a silvicultural prescription, implement the prescription on the ground, and write a detailed report on their work. (2 hours lecture, 4 hours lab). Prerequisites: Introduction to Forestry (FOR 101) and Dendrology (FOR 110), or permission of the instructor.

FOR 265: Forestry Field Ecology
2 Credit Hours Summ. Sess.

This course will allow the participants to gain field experience in the forest ecosystems of the Adirondack region. Students will evaluate forest composition and structure by performing inventories of over-story and under-story vegetation. Ecosystem function will also be analyzed, requiring students to closely observe soil characteristics, and nitrogen, carbon and water cycling. The spruce bog, lowland conifer, mixed woods and upland hardwood zone will be studied on site over the two week course. The course will require journal readings, as well as daily laboratory reports. Students should also be in good physical condition and expect to walk several hours per day. Prerequisites: Introduction to Forestry (FOR 101) and Dendrology (FOR 110), or permission of the instructor.

FOR 270: Draft Horse Management
3 Credit Hours d.b.a.

This course introduces the student to the care, management, and use of draft horses in a variety of work situations. Lectures focus on care, maintenance, anatomy, and facility requirements for optimum management. Laboratories will concentrate on handling, harnessing, and driving horses in a variety of applications (i.e., one-horse, two-horse team, log skidding, wagon driving.) (2 hours lecture, 3 hours lab).

FOR 275: Maple Sap and Syrup Production
3 Credit Hours Spring Sem.

This course is designed to teach students the many dimensions of successful operation and management of a sugar bush. The skills learned from this course will range from managing sugar maples for sap production to marketing maple syrup. The College's Sugar Bush will be the classroom for this course and provide students with the hands-on experience. The student may be asked to demonstrate his or her knowledge by conducting tours for the public. (2 hours lecture, 3 hours lab).

FOR 285: Urban Forestry Issues
2 Credit Hours Spring Sem.

This course explores the components of the urban forest and the social benefits of urban green space. These components include planning and management of street tree populaions, basic inventory methods and job cost estimation. The goal is for students to gain an appreciation for the intricacies of running a tree care business, therefore insurance and tax issues will be studied, along with the importance of maintaining a professional image, work place relations including personnel management, conflict resolution, harassment, and drug use in the work place. (2 hours lecture). Prerequisite: Aboriculture (FOR 140).

FOR 295: Urban Tree Management Externship
3 Credit Hours Summer Sess.

This is a first-job experience in the green industry. The student is required to complete a minimum of 400 hours in a position approved by the Program Coordinator. Students are informed of various job opportunities offered through the College Placement Office or the Program Coordinator. A student may decide to independently select a job experience upon approval of the Program Coordinator. Grading is pass/fail. Prerequisite: Satisfactory completion of all first-year URTM courses, or permission of the instructor.

FOR 310: Forest Ecology
3 Credit Hours Spring Sem.

The course deals with forest ecosystems-assemblages of trees and their communities and the environments in which they live. Ecological principles governing forest establishment, competition, succession and growth will be covered, providing the student with an understanding of ecological relationships which are basic to managing trees and forests from the urban environment to the forested watershed. (3 hours lecture). Prerequisites: Introduction to Forestry (FOR 101) and Dendrology (FOR 110), or General Ecology (BIO 210).

FOR 320: Industrial Forest Operations
3 Credit Hours Fall Sem.

This course presents an overview of the forest industry, with a primary emphasis on industrial forestry in the northeastern U.S. and adjacent Canada. The course will cover timber harvesting and wood procurement operations, including both the technologies used and major social, economic, and environmental factors that affect these operations. The course will also provide an overview of the main types of forest industrial facilities operating in the region. While the emphasis will be on larger industrial facilities (large sawmills, pulp mills, furniture plants, etc.), smaller operations will also be covered. Throughout the course, an important element will be the role that foresters typically play when working with, or for, a forest industry firm. (3 hours lecture, field trips). Prerequisite: Introduction to Forestry (FOR 101).

FOR 330: Forest Soils
3 Credit Hours Spring Sem.

A synthesis of landscape interpretation from the very bedrock up, through parent materials, land-use history, vegetation, and ultimately to atmosphere and climate, as they all work together to form forest soils. Emphasis is on New York State soils as a basis for comparison with soils of other forested regions of the United States (New England, Great Lakes, Southeast, Northwest). Here is an attempt to find out why plants, especially tree species, grow where they do. (2 hours lecture, 3 hours lab).

FOR 340: Forest Management
4 Credit Hours Spring Sem.

This course is designed to teach the fundamentals of decision-making in relation to forest management. The course has three major parts. The first part deals with land and timber appraising techniques: the time value of money and investment decision models are discussed, along with forest taxation. The second part deals with the traditional methods for regulating even- and uneven-aged forests, rotation determination and allowable cut calculations. The third part covers the more advanced topics, such as linear programming for maximization, multiple use management practices (with an emphasis on recreation, wildlife, and water), appraisal of non-timber resources and the fundamentals for writing a forest management plan. Computers are used extensively and the use of Geographic Information Systems for development of the students' management plans is strongly encouraged. (3 hours lecture, 4 hours lab). Prerequisites: Forest Mensuration (FOR 240) and Silviculture (FOR 260), or permission of the instructor.

FOR 345: Forest Measurements
3 Credit Hours

FOR 345 is an advanced treatment of forest measurements. Subject areas include in-depth treatments of: cull estimation; local volume table construction using simple linear regression; site quality evaluation; tree growth and stem analysis; stand growth; growth and yield and the use of multiple regression estimation; timber trespass estimation; probability proportional to size and probability proportional to prediction forest sampling; forest inventory planning, execution, and analysis; contingency table analysis; logistic regression; stratified random sampling. The approach to teaching will integrate classroom discussions, field demonstrations and practice, and guidance on student field and data analysis projects. Prerequisites: Introduction to Forestry (FOR 101), Dendrology (FOR 110), and Statistics (MAT 210).

FOR 350: Forest Policy
3 Credit Hours Fall Sem.

This course will examine the evolution of forestry as an applied science. Emphasis will be placed on identifying the major scientific and social drivers which have created the emergence of new paradigms in forestry. Policy and actual forestry practices will be examined concurrently to better understand how land-use decisions are made. The scope of this course will range from local forestry issues within the Adirondack Park, to global issues faced in the developing world which, strive to strike a balance between development and preservation. General topics will include historical land-use shifts, environmentalism, economic shifts, interagency conflict, conservation mechanisms, and cross-border forest policies. (3 hours lecture). Prerequisites: Introduction to Natural Resources & Society (NRS 101) or Introduction to Forestry (FOR 101).

FOR 370: Ornamental Dendrology
3 Credit Hours Fall Sem.

This course provides the opportunity to study woody plants that are used for ornamental purposes. Students will be required to identify and name the plants on the study list. Information pertaining to the uses of the plants, site requirements, and pest problems will also be covered. The teaching format will include the use of references, slide presentations and field trips. (1 hour lecture, 3 hours lab). Prerequisite: Dendrology (FOR 110) or permission of the instructor.

FOR 380: Understory and Ground Cover Flora
3 Credit Hours Fall Sem.

Once the student is familiar with the northern forest over-story, he or she may want to become equally familiar with the under-story, the small plants, which grow beneath: their personality, portraits, strategies, site requirements, relations to other organisms, edibility, toxicity, and medicinal use. This should be good training for those who plan to teach, do research, or lead interpretive walks for the public. Instruction will be in the form of two 55-minute lectures per week, plus one two-hour laboratory/field trip per week. Two of the weekday laboratories will be replaced by an all-day, eight-hour Saturday field trip to the Champlain Valley in September. (2 hours lecture, 2 hours lab). Prerequisites: Dendrology (FOR 110), or Natural Habitat Interpretation (ENV 222), or permission of instructor. Prior knowledge of over-story trees and botanical nomenclature is assumed.

FOR 395: Forestry Externship
3 Credit Hours d.b.a.

Students spend from 240 to 400 hours working for an organization that carries out forestry-related activities, such as an industrial firm, consulting company, government agency, non-profit conservation/ environmental group, or a research institute. The student must identify a sponsoring supervisor at the chosen organization and have the supervisor provide both a written description of the proposed student work plan and a final performance review. It is the responsibility of the student to secure the externship, and to obtain approval, prior to beginning the externship, from the Dean of the Division or the designated Externship Coordinator. Grading is on a pass/fail basis. Prerequisite: One full year of course work in major.

FOR 396: Sustainability Studies Externship
3 Credit Hours d.b.a.

This course is designed to provide the opportunity to students to pursue their interests in sustainability studies in areas such as sustainable agriculture, community development, alternative farming and forestry. Opportunities may include, (but are not limited to): apprenticeships in organic farming/gardening, internships with community (including municipal, campus, and business) sustainability coordinators, and green construction, community greenscaping, and landscape management. All guidelines and requirements related to externships listed in the catalog apply. This experience must be completed before the student's final year in residence at PSC - it may not be executed after the last semester of the student's program. To apply for this opportunity students are required to develop and sign a written externship agreement describing the nature of the externship, planned learning outcomes, timing of the externship, student deliverables and other elements may apply. Application must be approved by the FNRR Dean before the beginning of the externship. Credit for the experience will only be given once the student has completed an exit interview with the appropriate Dean (or designee) that should include evidence of compliance with the written externship agreement. Prerequisites: Approval obtained from the appropriate Dean before the beginning of the externship. Sophomore or higher standing, a minimum of a 2.0 GPA, and possess an acceptable academic and behavioral record (e.g., may not be on disciplinary probation or academic restrictions).

FOR 400: Forest Products
3 Credit Hours Fall Sem.

The major emphasis of this course is on wood and its use as the raw material for forest products industries. The physical and chemical nature of wood, important wood properties and the nature and properties of major wood products will be covered. To a lesser degree, non-wood products will also covered. In the lab portion of this course, students will learn how to identify the wood of a wide range of tree species and also learn how to measure basic wood properties, such as percent moisture and density. (2 hours lecture, 3 hours lab). Prerequisites: Industrial Forest Operations (FOR 320) or Forest Management (FOR 340).

FOR 410: Forest Resource Economics
3 Credit Hours Fall Sem.

This course will cover important economic principles of relevance to forestry and natural resource management, including supply and demand, pricing, net revenue maximization, marginal analysis, investment evaluation, taxation, market and non-market goods and services, and the economics of multiple use. These principles will be related to specific forestry issues, such as the determination of optimal rotation ages; land and equipment investment decisions; timber stand improvement decisions; determining the effects of taxes on forestry investments; and incorporating non-timber products into forest management decision making. (3 hours lecture). Prerequisites: Introduction to Forestry (FOR 101) and Microeconomics (ECN 102).

FOR 420: Advanced Silviculture
3 Credit Hours Spring Sem.

This course will cover advanced topics in applied silviculture, with a heavy emphasis on forest stand dynamics, innovative silviculture practices, and the relationship of silviculture to major forestry issues (e.g., forest certification and endangered species management). While emphasizing the Silviculture of northeastern forests, the course will also cover major silvicultural practices and issues of the southern and western United States. In the laboratory portion of the course, students will take field trips to see silvicultural practices applied to the field, collect data for use in site evaluations and growth and yield models, and gain experience with silviculture and forest stand growth models (e.g., the Northeast Decision Model and SILVAH). (2 hours lecture, 4 hours lab). Prerequisite: Silviculture (FOR 260).

FOR 430: Forest Pest Management
3 Credit Hours d.b.a.

In this course, students will learn about the biology, classification, and management of major forest and shade tree pest species. Topics covered will include insect and disease agent classification, general biology of major pest species, forest pest impacts and control, and the role of pests (positive and negative) in forest ecosystems. In the laboratory portion of the course, students will learn to collect and identify forest pests and also learn to recognize the signs and effects of pests in the forest and on individual trees. (2 hours lecture, 3 hours lab). Prerequisites: Biology I and II (BIO 101, BIO 102) and Dendrology (FOR 110), or permission of instructor.

FOR 440: Utility Vegetation Management
3 Credit Hours Spring Sem.

This course presents an overview of vegetation management issues, programs and techniques of importance to organizations that maintain powerlines, pipelines, and other types of right-of-ways that require control of vegetation. The development of utility vegetation management programs and strategic planning issues will also be covered. The lab component of the course will focus primarily on use of computers and other technology for program development and management, but will also cover some advanced or specialized arboriculture techniques of relevance to utility vegetation management and will involve one or more field trips to see utility vegetation management project sites. (2 hours lecture, 3 hours lab). Prerequisite: Arboriculture (FOR 140).

Geographic Information Systems

GIS 201: Introduction to GIS
3 Credit Hours Fall/Spring Sems.

This course will introduce students to the most widely used Geographic Information System software called ArcView. Students will learn what GIS is and how it works. High-quality maps will be created through projects that require students to analyze and organize information tailored to various situations. Students will also learn how professionals in a wide range of fields are using GIS and how it can be a useful tool in their future careers. (2 hours lecture, 3 hours lab).

GIS 220: Aerial Photographic Interpretation
3 Credit Hours Spring Sem.

This course introduces the students to the general uses of aerial photography with applications to forestry and surveying. The students learn to recognize man-made and natural features from a bird's-eye view. They also develop skills at measuring areas, distances, bearings, heights of objects, and elevations of the ground. Forestry applications will include timber typing, stand measurements, and timber volumes. Surveying and mapping applications are also presented. (4 hours lab). Prerequisite: MAT 125: College Algebra or taken concurrently.

GIS 260: Geodesy, GPS and GIS
4 Credit Hours Fall Sem.

An intensive hands-on course introducing concepts and applications in Geodesy, Global Positioning Systems (GPS) and Geographic Information Systems (GIS), with an emphasis on their use in surveying. Emphasis is on determining the validity, accuracy and reliability of data collected. Students will apply these concepts and technologies in several group and individual projects. GPS hardware and software, as well as GIS software, will be used extensively. (Five 24-hour weeks) Prerequisite(s): SVR 235 Surveying III: Field Experience

GIS 335: Advanced GIS Techniques
3 Credit Hours d.b.a.

This course provides advanced training and experience in Geographic Information Systems. Advanced GIS Techniques is a continuation of GIS 201: Introduction to GIS where students will learn new skills and refine skills previously acquired. Topics include data acquisition and automation, Global Positioning Systems (GPS), spatial analysis, cartographic modeling and output design. Software used during the course will include MS PowerPoint, ArcView, Spatial Analyst, and GPS Pathfinder. Students will be required to select a project that will focus on creating a database, using both Spatial Analyst and GPS, analyzing their own data, producing a high-quality map product, and presenting the findings in a public format. (2 hours lecture, 3 hours lab). Prerequisite: GIS 201: Introduction to GIS.

GIS 350: Introduction to Remote Sensing
3 Credit Hours d.b.a.

The fundamentals of non-photographic remote sensing will be presented. Several current types of remotely sensed imagery from various platforms, utilizing many portions of the electromagnetic spectrum, will be discussed. Experience with image analysis and classification techniques using digital image processing software will culminate in a map that will be useful for natural resource management or environmental assessment applications. Students will also learn the importance of statistical map accuracy assessments in order to judge the quality of their own maps or those produced by others. Prerequisite: Advanced GIS Techniques (GIS 335).

GIS 420: GIS Applications
3 Credit Hours d.b.a.

This course provides students with the experience of how Geographic Information Systems are applied to forestry and natural resources. GIS Applications is a project-oriented course which is the final GIS course taught in the series. Projects include application of GIS in forestry, landscape ecology, wetlands, land management and surveying. Software used during the course will include MS PowerPoint, ArcView, Spatial Analyst and GPS Pathfinder. Students will be required to select and plan their own project that will focus on an application of GIS, thus creating a database, analyzing their own data, creating metadata, producing a high-quality map product, and presenting their methods, results and map products professionally. (2 hours lecture, 3 hours lab).

Hospitality and Restaurant

HOS 101: Hotel, Resort and Tourism Industry Orientation
3 Credit Hours Fall/Spring Sems.

This is an introductory course covering hotel operations from Biblical inns to the present complex structure of hotels/resorts and the evolution of tourism due to improvements in transportation, communication and technology. The course provides an overview of the hospitality business and introduces students to a variety of career paths available within the hospitality industry. Students are also introduced to the concept of student assessment portfolios.

HOS 150: Front Office/Property Management
3 Credit Hours Spring Sem.

This course prepares students for front office operations at a hotel/resort. The course provides an overview of front office accounting and night audit practices, communications and guest services, and front office management functions. Students will participate in role-playing and individual/group activities to simulate real-life situations frequently encountered within the Front Office. The course also incorporates exercises in telephone answering skills and room selling strategies.

HOS 210: Hotel Accounting
3 Credit Hours Fall/Summer Sems.

A course designed for the Hotel/Restaurant Management student who has completed a course in introductory accounting at the college level. It consists of explanation and demonstration of the more common techniques and methods by which management can interpret, analyze, and make decisions from information provided by accounting systems. Prerequisite: ACC 101 Financial Accounting

HOS 250: Convention Sales and Promotion
3 Credit Hours Fall/Summer Sems.

Topics covered include defining various group meetings, locating these groups, identifying their respective needs, and preparing for their sale and service. Promotional sales trips for putting theories into practice may also be undertaken.

HOS 265: Hotel Practicum
6 Credit Hours Fall/Summer Sems.

The Practicum provides a quality, professional, faculty supervised learning experience for hospitality students as they practice total guest satisfaction skills in a profit oriented enterprise. The practicum applies classroom concepts to practical situations and integrates hands-on experience with academic instruction. Students gain entry-level experience in numerous areas of a commercial operation including food and beverage (wait staff, host/maitre'd, bar back) and rooms division (housekeeping, laundry, front desk, reservations, sales, accounting, conference support services). Students will be expected to document 400 hours of industry work experience by the conclusion of this course. Prerequisite(s): HOS 101 Hotel Resort Tourism Orientation and HOS 150 Front Office Property Management and an overall 2.0 minimum GPA.

HOS 295: Hotel Externship
6 Credit Hours Fall/Spring/Sum Sems.

Students will complete a semester or more working in an on-the-job experience, Students will sign a contractual agreement with an externship site related to their major. A choice of one of the following options is available: 1) Competitive participation in one of the externships developed by the College; or 2) Independent externship in the industry secured by the student that meets the approval of the Program Coordinator. Verifiable full-time work experience of 400 hours in the hospitality industry prior to enrollment at Paul Smith's College may be substituted for either option 1 or 2. (See Externship Verification Process section). Enrollment in either of the two options requires a GPA of 2.00 or better. Grading is pass/fail based on completion of the contractual agreement with the externship property and adherence to their rules and regulations of employment, as well as to Paul Smith's College rules of student conduct.

HOS 299: Special Topics in Hospitality
3 Credit Hours d.b.a

This course will provide students with an opportunity to study Hospitality topics which are not normally offered. These courses are selected for their potential to contribute both to the professional and intellectual development of students. In most cases, student demand or faculty expertise (or both) are factors which influence the selection and timing of these courses. Prerequisite(s): HOS 101 Hotel, Resort and Tourism Industry Orientation, or RES 132 Dining Rom and Kitchen Operations

HOS 300: Service Economy
3 Credit Hours Fall/Spring Sems.

A course designed to introduce the student to the significance of economic transitions from agriculture, through manufacturing, and on to one of the most significant economic paradigms of the last 50 years: service and experience. The student will review historical examples of economic paradigm shifts and numerous case studies of successful companies that have implemented competitive service initiatives. The student will additionally be charged with identifying quality and value of service and its delivery in modern society and how it impacts consumer behavior. Prerequisite(s): HOS 265 Hotel Practicum or CUL 260 Commercial Cooking and Catering.

HOS 310: Beverages: History of the World in Six Glasses
3 Credit Hours Fall Sems.

This course charts world history through the story of six beverages: beer, wine, spirits, coffee, tea, and Coca-Cola. The modern system of taxation, social castes, America's independent spirit, freedom of information and society's move toward globalization have all been made possible by these beverages. Student must have completed a Foundational Social Cultural course or by instructor permission

HOS 320: Event Planning and Management
3 Credit Hours

This course examines the full event planning process; beginning with the anatomy of an event to establish the different layers of an event experience and the step by step processes needed to plan, design, and execute events that will meet the needs of both customers and audiences. Course may include involvement in an area special event. Prerequisite(s): HOS 101 Hotel Resort and Tourism Management, RES 132 Dining Room and Kitchen Management or REC 101 Intro to Recreation, or by special permission from the Dean.

HOS 331: Hospitality Futures
3 Credit Hours Fall Sem.

This is a hospitality industry current events course. Using various creative thinking techniques, students will both present and participate in lectures and discussions concerning current and predicted future trends in the hospitality industry. Because of the nature of the course, subject matter will change each semester to reflect the emergence of new cultural, socioeconomic, business, technology and demographic trends. Prerequisite(s): HOS 265 Hotel Practicum or CUL 260 Commercial Cooking and Catering.

HOS 400: Resort and Recreation Management
3 Credit Hours Fall Sem.

A course that applies new organizational management techniques to a dynamic, specific segment of the tourism market. Students will discover the unique nature of resorts, the market segments attracted, the complexity of customer service options needed to sustain a market share, and the environmental characteristics that give each resort its differentiation. Heavy emphasis is placed on marketing principles as applied to these destinations. Prerequisite(s): MGT 200 Principles of Management or MKT 200 Principles of Marketing or Sales.

HOS 499: Special Topics in Hospitality
3 Credit Hours

This course will provide students with an opportunity to study hospitality topics which are not normally offered. These courses are selected for their potential to contribute both to the professional and intellectual development of students. In most cases, stduent demand or faculty expertise (or both) are factors which influence the selection and timing of these courses. Prerequisites: HOS 265 Hotel Practicum or CUL 260: Commercial Cooking and Catering.

RES 130 Introduction to Beverage and Table Service
3 Credit Hours d.b.a.

This course introduces the students to various styles of table service and the organization, sequencing and timing of service. Beverage service will be discussed with an emphasis on the growing business of wine in the hospitality industry.

RES 132: Dining Room and Kitchen Operations
3 Credit Hours Fall/Spring Sems.

Students will learn about the day-to-day activities involved in managing a restaurant. Through this experience students will acquire specific food operations skills while developing foundational knowledge for upper-division coursework. A restaurant manager often becomes the liaison between front- and back-of-the-house operations; therefore both sides of the house will be explored. An analysis of the history and current state of the industry will serve as a foundation for helping students to acquire the necessary skills to ensure that guests receive excellent service. In this course students will be introduced to the objectives and requirements of the Industry Work Experience Internship.

RES 170: Food Service Sanitation
3 Credit Hours d.b.a.

This course will focus on the importance of sanitation in the food service industry. Students will gain an understanding of the causes of food-borne illnesses and learn how sound sanitation management practices can reduce disease as well as improve food quality and overall success of a restaurant operation. Details concerning food supplies, food handling, the facility and training with regard to sanitation will be included. The process of the HACCP food safety program will be presented and applied. Students will be expected to take the ServSafe certification exam through the Educational Foundation of the National Restaurant Association.

RES 232: Catering Planning and Management
3 Credit Hours Fall Sem.

A course that focuses on the planning, organizing, logistics, management of, execution and evaluation of on-premise and off-premise catered events. Students will learn the process used in developing a Banquet Event Order, including identification of customer needs, networking with various internal departments and outsource providers; design of a menu to match the desired outcomes of an event, as well as the customer service measurement devices that will make each event successful and a learning function at the same time.

RES 250: Introduction to Food Production
4 Credit Hours Fall/Spring Sems.

This course provides students with the opportunity to learn and practice basic culinary technical skills that are essential for the foodservice industry. Students will be introduced to professional standards of the industry, knife skills, including handling and care, cooking processes and procedures, product identification, culinary vocabulary and terminology, use of industry equipment, recipe costing and quantity adjustments as well as menu planning. The course will utilize chef demonstrations, group participation, peer evaluations and critiques of properly prepared foods.

RES 330: Facilities Planning and Environmental Management
3 Credit Hours Spring Sem.

This course focuses on designing systems for facilities. These designs include flow charting, built-in efficiencies in the conservation of human and other energies, and the quick, economical, and ecological disposal and recycling of packaging of other materials. It covers preliminary planning, the roles and responsibilities of members of the project team, the design sequence, principles of design, space analysis, equipment layout, fabricated and manufactured equipment, engineering and architecture for foodservice facilities. Prerequisite(s): HOS 265 Hotel Practicum or CUL 260 Commercial Cooking and Catering.

RES 431: Cultural Enology
3 Credit Hours Fall Sem.

The course will examine the history, trends, production and taste qualities of wine as well as beer and spirits as related to wine. Students will research the influence of wine on the economic and social development of various cultures. They will also analyze trends and investigate the impact of wine on the hospitality industry. Students will compare characteristics of major types of wine, evaluate overall quality and formulate wine and food pairings based on general guidelines and personal taste. Prerequisite: Social Cultural Foundation and Structural experience

Humanities

GEO 101: General Geography
3 Credit Hours Fall Sem.

This course provides students with an introduction to the physical landscapes of the earth as seen by the geographer. It views the physical landscape as consisting of landforms, climates, and biomes, and provides students with an opportunity to understand the interactions among them. All three features of the landscape are presented as evolving over time; consequently, students will be introduced to dynamic processes associated with geomorphology, meteorology and climatology, and ecology. (3 hours lecture).

GEO 105: Geography of World Destinations
3 Credit Hours Fall Sem.

This course is designed primarily for students who wish to pursue travel or hospitality careers. While it is a course that focuses on practical application rather than general education, Geography of World Destinations is far more comprehensive than a place-name geography course. This course helps students understand the relationships between physical and cultural environments found in a variety of world locations. Thus, travel destinations are set in a geographically-meaningful context for further analysis. While this one-semester course cannot possibly cover all travel destinations, the students will select several for detailed study and, in addition, be provided with a framework through which they, at any point in their career, can ascertain the appropriate geographical context for any travel destinations. (3 hours lecture).

GEO 200: Physical and Cultural Geography I
3 Credit Hours Fall Sem.

Geography is the social science discipline that focuses on the spatial dimensions of human organization and interaction. This course will provide students with an opportunity to study human landscapes found in different world regions. Students will examine the manner in which both physical and cultural environments (1) condition the values and world view of people in different world regions, (2) influence the social and economic systems which respond to these values, and (3) contribute to the manner in which socio-economic systems are set in regional space. The course uses world regions as a laboratory for learning the basic frameworks used by geographers. Students will select four or five regions for in-depth study. Thus, students will be provided with the opportunity to better understand the human dimensions of global change and gain insight into culture conflicts, the re-emergence of cultural nationalism, hunger and refugees, the spatial diffusion of AIDS, and a host of other issues found in the world today. (3 hours lecture).

GEO 201: Physical and Cultural Geography II
3 Credit Hours d.b.a.

A study of physical and cultural geography of Europe, Africa, and the Middle East. Each country, depending upon its size and importance, is studied in relation to its topographic and native aspects. (3 hours lecture).

GEO 400: Geography of World Cultures
3 Credit Hours Fall Sem.

Culture is the most comprehensive organizational mechanism used by humans to meet their basic needs and make sense of their lives. All human behavior, therefore, is seen as taking place in a cultural context. This course provides students with an opportunity to explore the relationship between culture and human use of space. Using selected world regions, students will learn how the human landscape has evolved and how it has been altered over time by agents of global change. (3 hours lecture). Prerequisite: Social/Cultural Foundational Experience.

HNR: Honors Seminars
3 Credit Hourse d.b.a.

Honors courses provide students with an opportunity to study diverse, interdisciplinary topics which are either not covered in other courses or are explored in more depth and with a greater interdisciplinary focus. These courses are selected for their potential to contribute intellectual and personal development of students. In most cases, student demand or faculty expertise (or both) are factors which influence the selection and timing of these courses. Prerequisites are determined on a course by course basis.

HST 201: History of the United States Through 1876
3 Credit Hours Fall Sem.

This course studies the history of the United States to Reconstruction. Origin and development of America and its institutions from the discovery of the New World to the close of the Reconstruction Period. (3 hours lecture).

HST 202: History of the United States 1877-Present
3 Credit Hours Spring Sem.

This course studies significant cultural, economic, political, and social forces from 1877 to the present. Among the topics covered are industrialization, social and political reform movements, foreign policy, World Wars I and II, the Great Depression and the Cold War. (3 hours lecture).

HST 215: The Adirondacks
3 Credit Hours Spring Sem.

This course will examine the environmental, political, and cultural history of the Adirondack Mountain region and provide students with an analytical framework for interpreting the landscape and history of our regional environment, the natural world and mankind's relationship to it. (3 hours lecture).

HUM 105: Art of Film
3 Credit Hours d.b.a.

Students will be introduced to major aspects of the art of film. By viewing and discussing major motion pictures, students will study the artful manipulation of lighting, framing, movement, sound, and editing. Directing, acting, set design, story telling, and other aspects also will be discussed. Students will be encouraged to develop criteria for the critical appreciation of film. (3 hours lecture).

HUM 110: Music Performance
1 Credit Hour d.b.a.

This course allows students to develop their musical proficiency while rehearsing and performing as part of an ensemble. The students will be divided into appropriate performance groups, based on their stylistic preferences, instruments, and abilities. These groups will each give three on-campus performances during the semester. The students will rehearse both by themselves and with the instructor, and they will develop and publish a program for each concert. Taken three times, this course will fulfill only an Open Elective requirement; it will not substitute as a Social Science/Humanities Elective. Grading is Pass/Fail.

HUM 115: Western and World Music
3 Credit Hours Fall/Spring Sems.

The aim of this course is to increase student understanding and enjoyment of music. The semester will begin with the fundamentals in common musical concepts (basic notation, rhythm, dynamics, melody, harmony, texture, and form) and then survey the principal periods of Western Music (Medieval, Renaissance, Baroque, Classical, Romantic, and Modern). The course will also examine the way in which popular music incorporates the techniques and forms of the composers of the past. Non-Western music, or 'World' Music, will be explored and discussed in order to emphasize the universality of musical expression. Other styles, such as Post-modern Classical, the American Musical, Jazz, etc., will be explored as time permits. Previous musical training is not necessary. (3 hours lecture).

HUM 120: Western Culture: The Ascent of Man
3 Credit Hours Fall/Spring Sems.

This survey course will be an overview of the origins, evolution and achievements of what we loosely call Western Culture, and how it has shaped our lives today. It will cover technological, philosophical, and cultural advancements and their inter-relationships. The specific contributions of various great historical figures will be highlighted. (3 hours lecture).

HUM 135: Photography
3 Credit Hours d.b.a

This beginning photography course introduces students to the concepts and the technical skills necessary to create black and white prints. All essentials of black and white photography — from hardware to film to developing to printing to mounting — are covered. A student-owned, fully adjustable SLR camera is needed. Prerequisite: None

HUM 200: Studio Art
3 Credit Hours

This introductory-level course will provide students with "hands-on experience" in the art studio. The concepts and processes necessary to produce art using various techniques such as drawing, painting, woodcarving, and collage will be addressed. Students will be encouraged to experiment with the different mediums. They will be introduced to the principles of composition, dimensionality, and color with an emphasis on individual expression. (3 hours lecture).

HUM 210: Issues in Philosophy
3 Credit Hours Spring Sem.

In this basic course, the student is introduced to some of the major questions of philosophy and some of the answers proposed by philosophers from ancient Greece to the present day. This is accomplished by studying such areas of philosophy as ethics, religion, politics, aesthetics, epistemology, and metaphysics. Students will read both original and summary analyses of the philosophical texts; and they will be asked to draw on their own experiences to understand and evaluate the arguments under consideration. (3 hours lecture).

HUM 270: Ethics
3 Credit Hours Fall/Spring Sems.

This course focuses both on the nature of morality itself and on the major ethical theories that have been central in western philosophy, including utilitarianism, deontological ethics, virtue ethics, and communitarian ethics. It places these theories in their historical context, provides for critical discussion of their strengths and weaknesses, and connects them with contemporary situations to emphasize their practical application in daily life. Philosophers considered will include Aristotle, David Hume, Immanuel Kant, and John Stuart Mill, among others. (3 hours lecture).

HUM 299: Special Topics in Humanities
3 Credit Hours d.b.a.

This course will provide students with an opportunity to study selected topics, appropriate to the humanities, which are not normally offered. These topics are chosen for their potential to contribute to the intellectual development of the students. Student demand and/or faculty expertise are the two factors which most influence the selection and timing of this course. Course topics might include literary genres, literary themes, visual arts, and ethics, among others. (3 hours lecture).

HUM 300: Philosophy of Nature
3 Credit Hours d.b.a.

This course explores the wide range of ideas about nature that philosophers and other thinkers have developed from ancient times to the present, and examines how such ideas inform (though often invisibly) contemporary debates concerning our relationship to the land, resource use, and other issues. General topic areas include Nature as Empirical Reality, Nature as Synonymous with Reason, Nature as Antithetical to Man, Nature as Moral Lawgiver, Nature as Aesthetic Norm, and Ecological Ideas. Discussion will draw on thinkers ranging from Aristotle, Tertullian, and Descartes to Thoreau, Aldo Leopold, and Frederick Turner. This philosophical component is complemented by readings and discussions of materials from the current press and recent publications. (3 hours lecture). Prerequisite: Human Condition Foundational Experience.

HUM 400: Nature and Art
3 Credit Hours Fall Sem.

Students will explore the influence of various theories of nature on visual artists throughout history. In turn, the influence of art on human perception of nature, especially as reflected in the conservationist movement, will be studied. Representative works in painting, sculpture, architecture, photography, film, and video from earliest times to the contemporary period will be discussed. Human expression in landscape design and other manipulations of nature will also form part of the course. Many cultures, particularly Japanese and Native American, will be examined for their contributions to human appreciation of the natural world. (3 hours lecture). Prerequisite: Junior standing.

HUM 499: Special Topics in Humanities
3 Credit Hours d.b.a.

Students will study topics chosen from the traditional humanities courses, such as literature, art, architecture, ethics, linguistics, language, history, archaeology, and anthropology. This course is more advanced than Special Topics in Humanities (HUM 299) and assumes a deeper and broader background in the enrolled student. It is intended to augment and supplement those designated humanities courses described in this catalog. (3 hours lecture). Prerequisite: Junior standing.

Language and Communication

COM 101: Speech
3 Credit Hours Fall/Spring Sems.

The purpose of the course is to give students training and practice in effective oral communication. English usage of good formal quality is stressed. The attainment of clear and interesting speech, augmented by appropriate public speaking techniques and skills, is emphasized. (3 hours lecture).

COM 105: Business Communications
3 Credit Hours Fall Sem.

Although the emphasis is on written communication, the course will also deal with the broader issues of successful communication in modern business, such as the role of technology, the importance of intercultural awareness, and the considerations of ethical and legal behavior. In addition to preparing different types of letters, memos, and short reports, students might work collaboratively on a report to be presented at the end of the semester. (3 hours lecture). Prerequisites: Communication Foundational Experience.

COM 210: Technical Communications
3 Credit Hours Spring Sem.

This course enables students to communicate technical information through a problem-solving format. The whole process of gathering and reporting technical information is discussed. Practice in a variety of technical formats culminates in a longer report that incorporates sources, visuals, and research. Students will communicate technically in writing, through visuals, and with oral reports. (3 hours lecture). Prerequisite: Communication Foundational Experience.

COM 215: Mass Media
3 Credit Hours Spring Sem.

This course is an introduction to the functions of the mass media, its history and use by various groups and institutions. The First Amendment will form the central place in discussion of the evolution of mass communication in the United States. The major media, particularly newspapers, magazines, broadcasting, film, advertising, and public relations will be studied. Emphasis will be on the forms, practices, habits, biases, and problems unique to American mass media. Discussion of the future of mass media, especially in the development of computers, the Internet, and cyberspace, will complete the course. Throughout the course, students will be encouraged to see the media's impact on their areas of study. (3 hours lecture).

COM 300: Dispute Management
3 Credit Hours Fall/Spring Sems.

This course will instruct students in recognizing and analyzing conflict and will present techniques which can help individuals manage problems with people more effectively and cooperatively. Students will learn to more effectively define the context of problems, to negotiate, mediate, and arbitrate. They will also learn how interpersonal communication can be improved by effective problem-solving and decision making. (3 hours lecture). Prerequisite: Junior standing or externship experience.

COM 340: Reporting and Writing Environmental News
3 Credit Hours

This course addresses the topic generation, topic research, reporting and newswriting process in the context of environmental concerns and issues. The course also addresses newsmedia and reporting business and ethical concerns, including changing readership, print and digital outlets and social responsibility in journalism. Students will engage in a semester-long news reporting and writing workshop guided by content presentations and discussions addressing the theoretical and practical concerns of writing environmental news, journal articles, feature essays and other non-fiction formats. Prerequisites: C-F and one of the following: Introduction to Environmental Studies (EST 101), Politics of the Environment (POL 202), Nature and Culture (EST 110) or Environmental History and Social Justice (EST 310).

ENG 101: English Composition I
3 Credit Hours Fall/Spring Sems.

This course consists chiefly of expository writing with emphasis on rhetoric, grammar, and mechanics, which may be studied as ends themselves. Effective revision strategies will be taught. Instruction in the use of the library and the writing of a library research paper are included, and attention is given to literature (essays, poems, short stories, etc.) as time permits. (3 hours lecture).

ENG 102: English Composition II
3 Credit Hours Fall/Spring Sems.

This writing-intensive course complements English Composition I (ENG 101). The main purpose is to develop critical thinking and expository writing skills through the study of and written reaction to various professional texts, literary, persuasive, or some combination thereof. The work will consist chiefly of written essays, with emphasis on audience awareness, ownership, clarity, organizational methods, and logic. The course will also include a research component. (3 hours lecture). Prerequisite: Communication Foundational Experience.

ENG 103: Hearts and Minds: Making Good Arguments
3 Credit Hours d.b.a

American democracy depends upon an informed and critically attuned citizenry. Advancement in one's career similarly depends upon critical thinking and eloquent advancement of one's ideas. In this course we will study classical and modern techniques of argument and persuasion and methods logical and illogical others use to influence our behavior. Class discussion of current issues will result in essays aimed at developing student argumentative and persuasive skills. Posters, advertising, video, and class debate may also be part of the course. Time or similar magazine and a polemical novel will be two of our texts. At semester's end students will prepare a lengthy written argument along with an oral presentation. (3 hours lecture). Prerequisite: Communication Foundation

ENG 104 : Social and Political Issues in American Films
3 Credit Hours d.b.a

Students will view major American films covering an array of topics and themes at the core of the national debate. Controversial feature films such as Dead Man Walking, Thelma and Louise, and Philadelphia, will be studied for their insights as well as biases. Building on the skills learned in the Communication Foundation, students will write a variety of papers on issues raised by these films, such as racism, censorship, sexual discrimination, environmental destruction, and war making. A research paper and an oral presentation on a matter of controversy will culminate the semester. (3 lecture hours, 2 film showing hours). Prerequisite: Communication Foundation

ENG 115: Wilderness in American Literature
3 Credit Hours Fall Sem.

This course will provide students with an analytical framework for interpreting nature writing or wilderness literature, i.e., writings in which the common theme is the natural world and humankind's relationship to it. Particular emphasis will be placed on the American experience in wilderness, and culture's response as seen in its literature. (3 hours lecture). Prerequisite: Communication Foundational Experience.

ENG 200: Advanced Composition
3 Credit Hours Fall/Spring Sems.

In this course the student learns by writing and by analyzing essays, both professional models and student themes. Students will analyze contemporary writers as an aid to the study of style and technique. (3 hours lecture). Prerequisite: Communication Foundational Experience.

ENG 210 - American Literature from Exploration through the Civil War
3 Credit Hours Fall Sem.

From the Exploration and Colonial Periods to the Civil War, this course surveys the writings of explorers and Americans of diverse backgrounds in an attempt to understand the character of the American experience. In addition to studying such classic authors as Franklin, Thoreau, Poe, and Whitman, students will read the journals of explorers, diaries of colonial settlers, slave narratives and Native American poetry and prose. (3 hours lecture). Prerequisite: Communication Foundational Experience.

ENG 211 American Literature from Reconstruction through the Vietnam War
3 Credit Hours Spring Sem.

This course forms the second half of a survey of the rich literary life of the United States. From Reconstruction, Westward Expansion, and the era of industrial and urban development to more recent times, the writings of our many peoples will be examined as they comment on the nature of the American story. Selections from Native American, Hispanic, Afro-American, Jewish, and other traditions will be read along with the work of such traditional figures as Twain, James, Hemingway, Frost, and Faulkner. (3 hours lecture). Prerequisite: Communication Foundational Experience.

ENG 220: Creative Writing
3 Credit Hours Spring Sem.

Workshop in the writing of poetry, fiction and drama; the emphasis may vary. (3 hours lecture). Prerequisite: Communication Foundational Experience.

ENG 240: Women in Literature
3 Credit Hours d.b.a.

This course will focus on American and English women writers and critics studied in relation to literary developments defining and affecting women's roles in society and the arts. Primary texts are studied, along with critical theory of writing by women. (3 hours lecture).

ENG 340: Contemporary Environmental Writers
3 Credit Hours Fall Sem.

This upper-division literature course will survey contemporary non-fiction and literary journalism that focuses on issues in nature, natural history, the environment, and related topics. Students will examine literature that reveals and interprets the environment and its social, philosophical, economic, and cultural contexts and implications. Readings may include works by noted contemporary writers such as E. O. Wilson, Barry Lopez, Edward Abbey, Terry Tempest Williams, Bill McKibben, Wendell Berry, Sue Hubbell, Farley Mowat, Gary Paul Nabhan, Rick Bass, Annie Dillard, Peter Matthiessen, Stephen Jay Gould, and David Quammen. (3 hours lecture). Prerequisites: Human Condition Foundational and Structural Experiences.

ENG 350: World Literature
3 Credit Hours Spring Sem.

This course is a study of the interconnections among literatures from a wide variety of cultures, eras, and genres. An upper-division survey course, World Literature examines the roles literature plays within cultures. (3 hours lecture). Prerequisite: Communication Foundational Experience.

ENG 400: Writing on Nature and the Environment
3 Credit Hours d.b.a

This course is designed as an upper-division writing workshop and students will learn to use the range of writing and editing skills necessary to interpret the environment and its social, philosophical, economic, and cultural contexts and implications. This course will also expose the advanced writing student to techniques in non-fiction and literary journalism employed by contemporary writers on issues in nature, natural history, the environment, and related topics. A student's final project will include a publishable work - review, feature, essay, study, or memoir - to be presented to the College community, as well as submitted for possible publication in a regional or national periodical. (3 hours lecture). Prerequisites: Human Condition and Communication Foundational Experiences.

LAN 101: Elementary Spanish I
3 Credit Hours Fall/Spring Sems.

Elementary Spanish I is designed to give students with little or no background a basic introduction to Spanish phonology, grammar, and syntax, as well as a basic vocabulary. Students are also introduced to some of the varied Spanish culture and history of Spain, Latin America, and Mexico. Some attention is also devoted to Latino in the United States. (3 hours lecture).

LAN 102: Elementary Spanish II
3 Credit Hours Spring Sem.

Building on a basic understanding of Spanish phonology, grammar, and syntax, Elementary Spanish II extends the student's knowledge of Spanish to include, as examples, an understanding of the different uses of the preterit and imperfect;direct and indirect object pronouns; constructions with gustar; uses of por and para; the present subjunctive; an expanded vocabulary for carrying on extended conversations; and a further understanding of Spanish cultures in and outside of the United States. An increased emphasis is placed on oral proficiency and the ability to carry on extended conversations in Spanish. (3 hours lecture). Prerequisite: Elementary Spanish I (LAN 101)

LAN 103: Elementary French I
3 Credit Hours Fall/Spring Sems.

This is a proficiency-oriented beginning French course intended for students with no previous background in French. As the first half of the elementary French sequence, it introduces the basics of the French language using a proficiency-oriented approach to practice vocabulary, common expressions, reading and writing. Students will also make comparisons between French culture and North American culture. (3 hours lecture).

LAN 104: Elementary French II
3 Credit Hours Spring Sem.

As the second half of the elementary French sequence, this proficiency-oriented course expands on the basics learned in Elementary French I through cumulative expansion of vocabulary, grammar, pronunciation and commonly used expressions, as well as increasing cultural understanding through continued comparison of French and North American culture and customs. (3 hours lecture). Prerequisite: Elementary French I (LAN 103)

LAN 201: Intermediate Spanish I
3 Credit Hours d.b.a.

This course will review basic Spanish grammar while introducing more complex structures. Vocabulary expansion will also be a major objective as students practice the four skills of speaking, listening, reading and writing on an increasingly sophisticated level. To the extent possible, in-class discussion will be in Spanish. Readings will encompass a variety of literary genres such as essays, poetry, and short stories, with a major objective being to introduce students to such icons of Spanish culture as Octavio Paz and Pablo Neruda. Reading and writing skills will be refined as students translate, write and respond to these readings. As well, through these and other course activities, such as the appropriate use of video and music, students will enrich their understanding of the Spanish-speaking world. (3 hours lecture). Prerequisites: LAN 102 Elementary Spanish II

LAN 202: Intermediate Spanish II
3 Credit Hours d.b.a.

Intermediate Spanish II will increasingly emphasize oral comprehension and expression with classes conducted almost entirely in Spanish. Class discussion and reading will be centered on a selection of short literary readings from a variety of well-known Spanish authors. Selected review of key grammatical differences between Spanish and English will occur in the context of the study of Spanish literature. Also, the class will study lexical options in context (i.e., denotational vs. connotational, colloquial and dialectical, the dangers of false cognates, etc.). (3 hours lecture). Prerequisite: Intermediate Spanish I (LAN 201), or permission of the instructor.

LAN 203: Intermediate French I
3 Credit Hours d.b.a.

This course will provide a thorough review of basic grammar while introducing more complex structures and greatly expanding vocabulary. The four skills of listening, speaking, reading and writing will be developed at a more sophisticated level. In-class discussions will be conducted in French with few exceptions, giving students abundant practice in oral communication. To refine writing skills, there will be frequent written compositions based on a variety of subjects. Reading activities will encompass various literary genres such as poetry, comic strips, songs, short stories, newspaper articles, etc. Students will learn proper usage of a bilingual dictionary. Course materials and activities will greatly enrich students' understanding and appreciation of the vast French-speaking world. (3 hours lecture). Prerequisites: Elementary French I & II (LAN 103, LAN 104), or permission of the instructor.

LAN 204: Intermediate French II
3 Credit Hours d.b.a

This course completes the Intermediate French sequence. Basic grammar will continue to be reviewed while new, more complex structures are introduced. Vocabulary will be further expanded. French texts from various genres will be used for reading activities and as a springboard for class discussions and written compositions. Class discussions will be conducted in French, giving students the opportunity to greatly advance their oral proficiency. Proper use of the bilingual dictionary will continue to be addressed. Students will continue to learn about and discuss numerous aspects of French and francophone culture, which will be presented through various sources, such as music, literature, newspaper articles, film and other media. Upon successful completion of this course, students should be able to function successfully in a French-speaking environment and should have a solid foundation for attaining fluency. (3 hours lecture). Prerequisite: Intermediate French I (LAN 203), or permission of the instructor.

Mathematics

MAT 098: Fundamentals of Mathematics I
0 Credit Hours Fall/Spring/Summer Sems.

This pre-algebra course takes a problem solving approach that emphases the importance of mathematical reasoning and modeling in solving real world problems drawn from a variety of disciplines. Topics include arithmetic, elementary algebra (solving first degree equations, rule of exponents, plotting ordered pairs) and fundamental concepts of geometry as well as numeracy (estimation, dimensional analysis), data analysis (gathering, using and interpreting data tables), and interpreting graphs. The course is intended for students with little or no algebra background and may be offered in a guided self paced format. (5 hours lecture).

MAT 099: Fundamentals of Math II
0 Credit Hours Fall/Spring/Sum Sems.

This elementary algebra course introduces students to the concept of a function via numerical, graphical and algebraic representations. Operations with polynomials, rational expressions and radicals are explored in the context of functions. Linear equations and inequalities and Quadratic Equations are also studied. Students are introduced to data collecting and elementary formulations of models for data. An emphasis will be placed on problem solving skills. (3 hours lecture, 1 hour lab). Prerequisite: Fundamentals of Math I (MAT 098 with a grade of "C" or better) or Accuplacer placement.

MAT 110: Finite Math
3 Credit Hours Fall/Spring Sems.

This is an introductory course in using mathematics as a basis for making logical decisions. The course will include the algebra of linear equations and inequalities and the solution of linear equations needed to solve linear programming problems geometrically. Other topics include set theory, matrices, basic statistics and the analysis of graphs. (3 hours lecture). Prerequisite: Fundamentals of Math II (MAT 099 with a grade of "C" or better), or Accuplacer placement.

MAT 125: College Algebra
3 Credit Hours Fall/Spring Sems.

This course will start with a review of basic algebra (factoring, solving linear equations and inequalities, etc) and will introduce various functions to include polynomial, rational, exponential, logarithmic and radical functions. Techniques of graphing these functions will also be explored. Additionally students will study systems of equations and sequences and series. (3 hours lecture). Prerequisite: Fundamentals of Math II (MAT 099 with a grade of "C" or better), or Accuplacer placement.

MAT 135: Financial Math
3 Credit Hours Fall/Spring Sems.

This course will examine the use of mathematics to solve contemporary problems, in particular real financial transactions. The concepts of algebraic manipulations of equations, exponential equations, logarithms and mathematical modeling will be emphasized. Students will analyze trends and current problems using graphs, spreadsheets, Internet resources, and financial equations. Course topics will include time value of money, present value and future value, simple and compound interest, ordinary annuities, sinking funds, amortization, stocks and investments. (3 hours lecture). Prerequisite: MAT 125 College Algebra or MAT 110 Finite Math or appropriate Accuplacer placement.

MAT 145: Trigonometry
3 Credit Hours Fall/Spring/Sum Sems.

This course is devoted to the study of plane trigonometry. Formal topics include: solution of right and oblique triangles, trigonometric identities and equations, graphs of trigonometric functions, and applied problems. (3 hours lecture). Prerequisite: MAT 125 College Algebra or Accuplacer placement.

MAT 180: Pre-Calculus
3 Credit Hours Fall/Spring Sems.

This course will cover topics that prepare a student to study in many different technical venues. Topics covered will prepare the student for further work in more advanced math courses particularly the Calculus sequence. Topics that covered include a very brief review of algebra concepts, with a more in depth treatment of linear equations and inequalities, quadratic equations and inequalities, graphing and modeling basic functions to include polynomial, rational, exponential, logarithmic and trigonometric. Additionally students will study systems of equations, conic sections, analytic geometry, sequences, series, binomial expansion and an introduction to limits. (3 hours lecture). Prerequisite: MAT 125 College Algebra or Accuplacer placement.

MAT 210: Statistics
3 Credit Hours Fall/Spring Sems.

This is an introductory course in statistics, designed to familiarize the student with numerical and graphical data distributions; exploratory data analysis; correlation and linear regression; the normal and binomial probability distributions; confidence intervals and some hypothesis testing. (3 hours lecture). Prerequisite: MAT 125 College Algebra or MAT 110 Finite Math or appropriate Accuplacer placement.

MAT 241: Calculus I
4 Credit Hours Fall/Spring Sems.

In this introductory calculus course, students will use practical problems to develop the concepts of calculus. Students will gain an appreciation of the usefulness of calculus to a broad range of applications. The concept of a function, including polynomial, rational, exponential, logarithmic, and trigonometric, the derivative, applications of differentiation and the definite integral will be covered. (4 hours lecture). Prerequisite: MAT 180 Pre-Calculus, or Accuplacer placement

MAT 242: Calculus II
4 Credit Hours Fall/Spring Sems.

This course is a continuation of Calculus I (MAT 241). Students will use practical problems to develop the concepts of integral calculus and to introduce differential equations. By focusing on the ideas behind solving the problems, the student will be able to solve a broad range of problems. Definite and indefinite integrals and first-order separable differential equations and their applications will all be approached from the graphical, numerical and analytical points of view. (4 hours lecture). Prerequisite: Calculus I (MAT 241).

MAT 243: Calculus III
4 Credit Hours Fall/Spring Sems.

This course is a continuation of Calculus II (MAT 242). Students will use practical problems to develop the concepts of multivariable calculus. Students will gain an appreciation of the possibilities for problem solving when freed from the constraints of modeling with one independent variable. Approximating functions with Taylor and Fourier series, vectors, partial derivatives, directional derivatives, gradients, the differential, methods of calculating multiple integrals, parametric curves and surfaces, vector fields, and their applications will all be approached from the graphical, numerical and analytical points of view. If time permits, line integrals, flux integrals, divergence and curl will be discussed. (4 hours lecture). Prerequisite: Calculus II (MAT 242).

MAT 290: Guided Research in Mathematics I
3 Credit Hours d.b.a.

This course provides students with the opportunity to conduct advanced study and research in a mathematical subject that is of particular interest to them, to be selected, designed, and conducted by the student under the guidance of a faculty member. Prerequisite: permission of the Dean.

MAT 331: Differential Equations
3 Credit Hours Spring Sem.

This course is to provide an introduction to the fundamental concepts of ordinary differential equations. The course should prepare students for advanced study in engineering or the physical, mathematical, biological, or social sciences. This course deals with first- and second-order differential equations and their applications. (3 hours lecture). Prerequisite: Calculus III (MAT 243).

MAT 390: Guided Research in Mathematics II
3 Credit Hours d.b.a.

This course provides students with the opportunity to conduct advanced study in a subject area within the fields of Natural Resources, Science and Liberal Arts that is of particular interest to them. The study will be selected, designed, and conducted by the student under the guidance of a faculty member. Prerequisite: permission of the Dean.

Natural Resources

NRS 101: Intro to Natural Resources & Society 3 Credits Fall Sem.

This course will be taught in an interdisciplinary fashion addressing the scientific, economic, and legal issues related to natural resource allocation. The course will begin with a conceptual overview of key issues, and trace the evolution of natural resource utilization and management. The course will examine both domestic and global resource challenges. In an effort to expose students to a broad range of topics, a module format will be utilized allowing approximately one week per topic. Students will be expected to consider resource allocation issues from a variety of professional and socio-economic perspectives. Particular attention will be given to options and tools for affecting resource allocation and environmental quality. Specific natural resource issues addressed will include resource stewardship, population growth, poverty, agriculture, water resources, air pollution, energy, climate change, and non-renewable resources.

NRS 320: Environmental Resource Analysis
3 Credit Hours Fall Sem.

This course is a study of the principles and techniques of environmental resource analysis, landscape and scenery classification, and procedures for environmental quality and impact analysis. The course will present basic information on land classification, landscape patterns, function and evaluation. It will define the difference between foreground, middle ground, and background and stress their importance in enhancing or detracting from the visitor experience. (3 hours lecture). Prerequisite: Design and Administration of Recreational Facilities (REC 275).

NRS 331: Land Use Planning
3 Credit Hours Fall Sem.

This course will expose the students to the practices and concepts of land-use and site planning as used to guide and direct development. The course will give the students an appreciation of how the bio-physical environment and human social systems can be made to work together through the planning process. Skills that will be developed include ecological analysis, cartography, and social science research methods. The course will examine case studies where different approaches to land use planning were used. It will look at the similarities and differences among the case studies, within the context of the goals, politics, economics and cultural differences. (3 hours lecture). Prerequisite: General Ecology (BIO 210) or equivalent.

NRS 335: Wilderness Management
3 Credit Hours Fall Sem.

This course provides an introduction to the basic concepts of wilderness designation and management. Students will study wilderness management in the United States with an emphasis on the Adirondacks. Course material also includes the study of the leisure concept, its impact on wilderness use and how regulatory agencies deal with it. Students have a first-hand opportunity to meet and talk with regional wilderness managers. (2 hours lecture, 4 hours lab). Prerequisite: Introduction to Recreation (REC 101) or permission of the instructor.

NRS 340: Watershed Management
4 Credit Hours Fall Sem.

In this course students will learn the principles of watershed management as related to land form, water quantity and quality, land use practices, and social organizations. The course will teach students the value of the watershed as a unit of study for environmental analysis. Students will understand how land management within the watershed affects water quality. The students will also learn why and how these factors relate to human settlement patterns and the socio-economic conditions in the watershed. The course will emphasize the effect of vegetation on watershed management. (3 hours lecture, 3 hours lab). Prerequisites: Biology I and II (BIO 101, BIO 102).

NRS 410: Natural Resource Economics
3 Credit Hours

This course will cover important economic principles relevant to natural resource management with an emphasis on forest-based resources. Topics will include supply and demand, pricing, investment evaluation, net revenue maximization, non-timber forest products and the emerging field of ecosystem service valuation. These topics will be explored through a variety of case studies, both domestic and international in scope. Emphasis will be placed on learning to construct strong, defensible, land-use arguments through the use of quantitative analysis. Prerequisites: Microeconomics (ECN 102) or Macroeconomics (ECN 101).

NRS 432: Landscape Ecology
3 Credit Hours d.b.a.

Landscape ecology is the youngest of the ecological sciences and is growing largely because of recent concern for maintaining and restoring environmental quality and habitat integrity. In fact, an understanding of the ecology of landscapes (and regions) is central to effective decision making in conservation planning, management and policy development. In this course, ecological structure, function, and change over both time and space will be addressed in the context of both landscapes and regions. We will look beyond typical land use and political boundaries to consider the broader spatial context of human activities and their impacts. (3 hours lecture). Prerequisites: Biology I and II (BIO 101, BIO 102) and General Ecology (BIO 210) or permission of the instructor.

NRS 499: Special Topics in Natural Resources
3 Credit Hours d.b.a.

This will be a topical course in natural resources management. In this course students will examine issues of present-day importance to the management of natural resources. The topic of study will change from year to year, as different issues gain prominence. Although the topics will change, the purpose of the course will remain the same. That purpose will be to provide a forum to engage the students in the national, state, or local debate on the management of natural resources. (3 hours lecture). Prerequisite: Watershed Management (NRS 340), Land Use Planning (NRS 331) and Conservation Biology (ENV 330).

Recreation

REC 101: Introduction to Recreation
3 Credit Hours Fall Sem.

This course introduces the student to the public and private fields of recreation. Students become familiar with basic terms and concepts, public park systems and operations, private recreation enterprises, landscape esthetics, park planning and design principles, carrying capacity and the general management of park visitors, recreation activities, and recreation areas. (2 hours lecture, 4 hours lab).

REC 110, REC 111: Adventure Skills Development I and II
3 Credit Hours Fall/Spring Sems.

Students will learn the safe, comfortable and environmentally-friendly practice of select outdoor adventure activities. They will use labs and weekend days to practice and hone activity skills. There are two 10-person sections per semester as offered. Outdoor adventure activities will rotate and vary according to instructor availability and activities will be different in each section so that students may repeat a sequence in order to acquire additional skills. 1. Supplemental fees may be charged for some activities. 2. Adventure Skills Development I is the sequential course to Adventure Skills Development II; students acquire increased levels of competency in skills and knowledge introduced in the preceding course. (8 hours lecture, 16 hours lab per 4-week block).

REC 120: Outdoor Recreation Leadership
3 Credit Hours Spring Sem.

This course provides an introduction to recreation and outdoor leadership in commercial/private recreation. Students will practice and apply outdoor leadership concepts. Components of outdoor recreation leadership will include group skills (group development, processing, judgment, decision making, teaching, etc.) and basic camping skills (minimum impact, water treatment, navigation, trail techniques, environmental ethics, etc.). Outdoor recreation concepts such as Recreation Opportunity Spectrum (ROS), Limits of Acceptable Change (LAC), and carrying capacity will also be addressed, explored and applied to issues in the Adirondack Park, as well as leadership in general. (2 hours lecture, 4 hours lab). Prerequisite: Introduction to Recreation (REC 101).

REC 132: Interpreting the Environment
3 Credit Hours Spring Sem.

This course focuses on the field of interpretation, the interpretive process, techniques of interpretation (trails, exhibits, slide presentations, visitor centers, campfire programs, the role of photography and video, etc.), writing and speaking in interpretive programs, and environmental education programs in parks and schools. (2 hours lecture, 3 hours lab).

REC 150: Introductory Whitewater Kayaking
2 Credit Hours

This course is an introductory class in whitewater kayaking. Students will learn the skills needed to maneuver safely and comfortably on still and moving water (up to Class II). Lecture topics include kayaking history, kayak and paddle designs, paddling techniques, river hazards and features, dressing to paddle safely, and simple rescues. Labs consist of various practice sessions and river trips on local and regional whitewater kayaking waters. These sessions and trips will provide students with opportunities to observe, discuss, and develop basic whitewater kayaking fundamentals while critically thinking about the challenges inherent in safely negotiating whitewater in a kayak. Students will additionally assist in the planning and execution of a weekend whitewater kayaking river trip. (2 credits). Additional course fees apply. Prerequisite: Introduction to Recreation (REC 101) or as a co-requisite AND permission of instructor. Preference for enrollment in course will be given to Recreation students. Any remaining slots will be made available to the entire student body.

REC 155: Introductory Sea Kayaking
2 Credit Hours

This course is an introductory class in sea kayaking. Students will learn the skills needed to maneuver safely and comfortably on open water. Lecture topics include the history of sea kayaking, kayak and paddle designs, paddling techniques, water hazards, dressing to paddle safely, basic open water navigation, and simple rescues. Labs consist of various practice sessions and trips on local and regional waterways and lakes. These sessions and trips will provide students with opportunities to observe, discuss, and develop basic sea kayaking fundamentals while critically thinking about the challenges inherent in safely paddling and navigating a sea kayak on open water. These experiences will also provide students with opportunities to develop relevant decision-making skills and judgment as leaders-in-training. Students will additionally assist in the planning and execution of a weekend sea kayaking trip. (2 credits). Additional course fees apply. Prerequisite: Introduction to Recreation (REC 101) or as a co-requisite AND permission of instructor. Preference for enrollment in course will be given to Recreation students. Any remaining slots will be made available to the entire student body.

REC 201: Forest Recreation
2 Credit Hours Fall Sem.

This seven-week course is intended primarily to give Forest Technician majors an introduction to the important concepts of forest-based recreation. Included in the course is information on the importance and value of forest-based recreation on both public and private lands. Key principles for planning, developing and managing forest recreation facilities and programs are also introduced. Relationships (both positive and negative) between recreation and other uses of forests are also discussed. (3 hours lecture).

REC 215: Forest Recreation and Environmental Problems
4 Credit Hours Fall Sem.

The course is divided primarily into two segments of study: resource-based environmental concerns and user-based concerns. Each is examined in depth and simultaneously as occurring in the field. In the study of resource-oriented concerns, the student will learn about water's relationship to recreation, the physical properties of soil, and the concerns of proper sanitation. The study of user concerns deals with people who use the land for recreation. The student will become familiar with how recreational users affect the forest resource and impact other users of the forest, both recreational and non-recreational. A sense of how forest technicians and other resource managers relate to recreationists will be developed. The course is designed to allow students to apply creativity and problem-solving potential to issues facing the recreation industry. (Five 28-hour weeks) Prerequisite: Recreation Leadership and Maintenance (REC 250), or permission of the instructor.

REC 240: Recreation Program Planning
3 Credit Hours Fall Sem.

This course is designed to provide students with a variety of program planning methodologies and skills. Emphasis will be placed on the planning, organization, implementation and evaluation of recreation programs that may be sponsored through various service providers. Working in teams, the students will plan, implement and evaluate a recreation program of their own design for a specific target population. Students will produce programs which will include a mission statement, goals and objectives, strategic planning tools, site and facility selection, promotion, registration processes, procurement of equipment and supplies, activity leadership and supervision, a safety/risk management plan, a budget and an evaluation instrument. (2 hours lecture, 2½ hours lab). Prerequisite: Introduction to Recreation (REC 101) or permission of the instructor.

REC 250: Recreation Leadership and Maintenance
4 Credit Hours Summer Sess.

This is a field-based course which emphasizes 'hands-on' experience in recreation leadership and construction/maintenance. Development in these skills includes minimum-impact camping, group leadership skills, and trail maintenance and construction of forest recreation facilities. Basic forest recreational management concepts will be studied and applied. (Four 40-hour weeks). Prerequisite: Interpreting the Environment (REC 132).

REC 263: Outdoor Recreation Practicum
6 Credit Hours Summer Sess.

This course will provide hands-on learning opportunities for the application of recreation concepts, outdoor leadership skills and techniques that were introduced in Outdoor Recreation Leadership (REC 120). The Outdoor Recreation Practicum offers both mental and physical challenges; students typically carry 50-75 pound backpacks and canoes, climb 4,000-foot peaks, complete rigorous off-trail navigation exercises, and are required to spend extended stays (7-12 days, 21 days total) in remote wilderness locations. Small groups will travel by canoe and foot in the back-country, away from immediate medical assistance. Class meetings on campus will involve skills assessment, planning, preparation, instruction and evaluation. Components of this course will include the development and refinement of camping skills (minimum impact techniques, sanitation, personal hygiene, cooking and baking, navigation, trail techniques, environmental ethics), travel skills (travel techniques and navigation, canoeing skills), and outdoor leadership skills (judgment and decision making, teaching techniques, group development and group dynamics, facilitation and debriefing techniques, etc.). The course uses the Wilderness Education Association curriculum and offers an optional WEA certificate of participation. (5 weeks, including mandatory weekends). Prerequisite: Outdoor Recreation Leadership (REC 120) or permission of the instructor.

REC 270: Recreation Resource Management
3 Credit Hours Spring Sem.

This course will provide an insight into the impact of recreational use on the natural resources of soil, water, wildlife, and vegetation. Topics covered will include the recreational opportunity spectrum, limits of acceptable change, human carrying capacity of recreation environments and experiences, monitoring recreation impacts, and visitor and site management. (3 hours lecture).

REC 275: Design and Administration of Recreational Facilities
3 Credit Hours Spring Sem.

This course is designed to further broaden the student's knowledge in recreation management, policy procedures, and in land-use planning. It will expand the student's knowledge of resource planning and design process of recreational facilities. (2 hours lecture, 3 hours lab). Prerequisites: Introduction to Recreation (REC 101) and Interpreting the Environment (REC 132), or permission of the instructor.

REC 280: Winter Recreation
3 Credit Hours Spring Sem.

This course provides an introduction to various aspects of winter recreation, including history, marketing trends, job prospects, techniques, teaching and leadership, required equipment and product design, risk management, user impact and resource requirements of select winter activities (e.g., snowshoeing, alpine and Nordic skiing, snowboarding, snowmobiling, and winter camping). Management issues and outdoor education concepts as well as topics specific to winter, including cold injury, ice safety, winter weather patterns and snow formation will also be covered. (2 hours lecture, 4 hours lab). Prerequisite: Outdoor Recreation Leadership (REC 120) and Outdoor Recreation Practicum (REC 263) or permission of the instructor.

REC 290: Outdoor Recreation Externship
3 Credit Hours Summer Sess.

This is a required course of supervised off-campus work experience in an appropriate aspect of the park and/or recreation field, relating to the student's recreation education. The course requires a minimum of 240 hours of work experience. Enrollment in this course requires a cumulative GPA of 2.00 or better. Grading is pass/fail.

REC 295: Forest Recreation Externship
6 Credit Hours d.b.a.

This is an optional course requiring a minimum of 400 hours of a supervised off-campus work experience in an appropriate aspect of the park and/or recreation field related to the student's recreation education. The course is offered during July and August, but time periods other than the summer session may be arranged at the discretion of the instructor. Enrollment in this course requires a GPA of 2.00 or better. Grading is pass/fail.

REC 299: Special Topics in Recreation
3 Credit Hours d.b.a

This is a topical course in recreation, in which the subject matter will vary from year to year. In a given year, the subject may be an issue of current importance to the field of recreation. Alternatively, the focus may be on developing particular outdoor recreation skills, such as backcountry skiing or rock climbing. The overall purpose of the course is to allow students to engage in a particular subject in greater depth and/or in a more timely manner than is possible in other recreation courses. (3 hours lecture).

REC 300: Adirondack Nature-Based Tourism
3 Credit Hours d.b.a.

This course is a 10-day intensive, field-based examination and analysis of examples of adventure travel and ecotourism that depend directly on the integrity of the Adirondack ecosystem. The course will examine private and public nature-based tourism agencies, providing students opportunities to learn about the environmental, social, political and economic implications of a range of recreational programs and products. Emphasis will be on diverse interpretations of "nature," "wilderness," and "recreation," as they apply to nature-based tourism offerings. The course will also place the Adirondack model of nature-based tourism within a national and international context, providing insights about best recreational practices both in the Adirondacks and beyond. Students will spend most of the 10 days in the field, and will spend several nights in primitive wilderness locations. (Ten 8-hour days). Prerequisite: Adventure Travel and Ecotourism (REC 320) or may be co-enrolled or permission of instructor.

REC 210: Risk Management and Liability
3 Credit Hours Fall Sem.

This course introduces the student to safety systems management and the principles of establishing and administering a risk management plan for a recreation agency or business. Students will apply their knowledge of legal responsibilities as practitioners to selected case studies involving legal issues in the recreation, adventure travel and ecotourism fields. Students will design a risk management and safety operations manual for a selected business or recreation agency. (3 hours lecture). Prerequisite: Adventure Travel and Ecotourism (REC 320).

REC 320: Adventure Travel and Ecotourism
3 Credit Hours Fall Sem.

This course explores and provides a perspective on nature-based tourism practices and their inter-relationships with human culture and ecosystem health. Detailed exploration of international case studies will afford insights into the various forms of nature-based tourism and local ecosystems and the legal and moral obligations of nature-based tourism providers to society and the global environment. This course is required for Recreation, Adventure Travel and Ecotourism students and clarifies the promises and pitfalls of the various forms of "green" recreation and tourism. This course is offered in an on-line, distance education format using computers and the Internet. Prerequisite: Introduction to Recreation (REC 101).

REC 340: Facilities Management
3 Credit Hours Spring Sem.

Park and recreation maintenance management is a multi-disciplinary field that has developed as facilities have increased tremendously in both number and variety. This course will bring together a variety of information, knowledge, and techniques for managing facilities. The course will deal with principles of facility management applicable to a variety of types of areas and facilities. (2 hours lecture, 4 hours lab). Prerequisite: Design and Administration of Recreational Facilities (REC 275).

REC 350: Park Management
3 Credit Hours Fall Sem.

This course provides in-depth coverage of the field of park operations. It seeks to develop a sense of history and philosophy, while providing key knowledge and skills in areas such as resource management and records maintenance. The emphasis of the course is on natural resource management, rather than recreational programming. Disciplines drawn upon in this course include ecology, forestry, wildlife and fisheries management, arboriculture, landscape architecture, planning, interpretation, law enforcement, communications, engineering, personnel management, accounting and budgeting. (2 hours lecture, 3 hours lab).

REC 355: Visitor Management Services
3 Credit Hours Spring Sem.

The basic purpose of parks is to serve people. Several basic questions that must be answered are: Who are the visitors? Where do they come from? In what activities do they participate? How long do they stay? This course first seeks to answer these types of questions by looking at user-group characteristics and participant profiles. The latter part of the course is then devoted to visitor management techniques. (3 hours lecture). Prerequisite: Introduction to Recreation (REC 101).

REC 361: Expedition Planning
3 Credit Hours Fall Sem.

The first in a two-course sequence concluded by the Eco-Adventure Practicum (REC 362), this course introduces students to the principles of planning a multi-day, nature-based outing in a remote location. Working in crews, students will use as a case study and semester project the planning of their own Eco-Adventure Practicum. Students are obliged to apply principles of "green" or sustainable nature-based tourism to the greatest extent possible. Student groups will plan the trip vision and objectives, leadership approach, logistics, itinerary, transportation, lodging, food, finances, promotion. etc. This multi-disciplinary course will include instructional modules addressing issues from the Natural Resources, Hospitality/Tourism, Business and Recreation perspectives. (2 hours lecture, 3 hours lab). Prerequisite: Adventure Travel and Ecotourism (REC 320) or may be taken concurrently.

REC 362: Eco-Adventure Practicum
3 Credit Hours Spring Sem.

The second in a two-course sequence started in Expedition Planning (REC 361), this course entails student participation in a multi-day, nature-based expedition/tour in a remote location. Students will execute, test and evaluate the detailed plans drafted in the Expedition Planning course. Students are obliged to practice principles of "green" or sustainable nature-based tourism. This course will be conducted entirely off campus and will entail additional fees above tuition. (2-3 weeks travel and expedition). Prerequisite: Expedition Planning (REC 361).

REC 395: Recreation, Adventure Travel and Ecotourism Externship
6 Credit Hours Fall/Spring/Sum Sems.

This course requires a minimum of 400 hours of a supervised off-campus work experience in an appropriate aspect of the Recreation, Adventure and Ecotourism field, related to the student's education. It is offered throughout the year to facilitate the coordination of the student's area of interest, the peak use times within the area chosen and the availability of the supervisor. Grading is pass/fail. (400 hours). Prerequisite: Introduction to Recreation (REC 101), Adventure Travel and Ecotourism (REC 320) or permission of the instructor.

REC 480: Issues in Recreation, Adventure Travel, and Ecotourism
3 Credit Hours Fall Sem.

An investigative course for the detailed study of current issues in Recreation, Adventure Travel, and Ecotourism with emphasis on unique and imaginative solutions to the challenges facing the Recreation, Adventure Travel, and Ecotourism professional. Issues discussed will be selected from the Recreation, Natural Resources and Hospitality/Tourism content areas. (3 hours/week). Prerequisite: Senior standing or permission of the instructor.

Sciences

BIO 100: Microbes and Society
3 Credit Hours d.b.a.

This course is designed to help students learn about microorganisms and understand their place in ecology and the environment, their uses in biotechnology, their role in food production and other industrial applications. The course will also address ways in which microorganisms may more directly influence the quality of our lives, including infectious diseases, problems with antibiotic resistance, and issues of bioterrorism. Much of the future may be influenced by the function of microorganisms in our world, and a scientifically-based awareness of their potential is important for everyone. (3 hours lecture).

BIO 101: Biology I
4 Credit Hours Fall/Spring Sems.

This introductory course serves as a foundation for other life science courses. Students will review the process of science and the properties of life. The diversity of organisms across all domains and kingdoms will be studied using an evolutionary perspective. Students will learn about the structure and function of major organ and tissue systems in animals and plants. Ecosystem structure and evolutionary processes will also be covered. (3 hours lecture, 3 hours lab).

BIO 102: Biology II
4 Credit Hours Fall/Spring Sems.

This course provides students with a broad overview of the foundations and scope of molecular, cellular, and ecosystem-scale biological science. Most of the material covers dates from the last 100 years. Students will develop the ability to view the natural world from a wide range of size perspectives, and to understand how submicroscopic, microscopic, and macroscopic aspects of the natural world interact. (3 hours lecture, 3 hours lab).

BIO 204: Plant Biology
3 Credit Hours Spring Sem.

Students will learn basic biological concepts as they relate to plants. Course content will address plant cell structures and processes at the cellular, tissue, and organ levels of organization. Other topics will include life cycles and reproduction of major plant groups, plant diversity, and ecological interactions. (2 hours lecture, 3 hours lab). Prerequisites: Biology I and II (BIO 101, BIO 102).

BIO 205: Animal Biology
3 Credit Hours Spring Sem.

This lecture course deals with animal biology using a taxonomic approach. Each major animal phylum will be studied in detail with respect to its morphology, physiology and evolutionary relationship to other animal phyla. Emphasis will be placed on understanding how the evolutionary changes seen across animal groups relate to specialization and success in a wide variety of environments. Prerequisites: Biology I and II (BIO 101, BIO 102).

BIO 210: General Ecology
3 Credit Hours Fall/Spring Sems.

This is a general ecology course that stresses niche parameters, population dynamics and regulation, species interactions, and community organizations and change. The course concludes with a coverage of the basics of ecosystem ecology. In the lab component, field work and work with computer models reinforce concepts covered in class. (3 hours lecture, 3 hours lab). Prerequisites: Biology I and II (BIO 101, BIO 102).

BIO 220: Evolution
3 Credit Hours d.b.a

This course will address the development and current state of evolutionary theory. Students will learn about sources of genetic variation, natural selection and other processes involved in molecular evolution. The course will also address population genetics, the formation of new species and macro-evolutionary processes. (3 hours lecture). Prerequisites: Biology I and II (BIO 101, BIO 102).

BIO 225: Genetics
3 Credit Hours d.b.a.

This course is a survey of the study of inheritance. It begins with a review of the fundamental concepts of Mendelian inheritance and basic cellular and molecular mechanisms. It also covers linkage, gene expression and regulation, mutation, quantitative analysis, gene maps, sequencing studies, and biotechnology. The course will conclude with a discussion of human genetics and population genetics. (3 hours lecture). Prerequisites: Biology I and II (BIO 101, BIO 102).

BIO 240: Microbiology
4 Credit Hours Spring Sem.

This course begins with the presentation of the basic characteristics and functions of the major groups of microorganisms, and while eukaryotic microorganisms, archaea and viruses will be introduced, the emphasis of the course is on the bacteria. Topics to be covered include cell morphology and structures, growth requirements, metabolic processes, means of reproduction and means of genetic variation. Additional topics address the influence of pathogenic microorganisms on other organisms, the mechanisms for defense and methods of control against such pathogens, and the role of microorganisms in the environment. During laboratory sessions, students will learn the standard procedures necessary for the study of microorganisms, and explore the features and functions of representative microorganisms. (3 hours lecture, 3 hours lab). Prerequisites: Biology I and II (BIO 101, BIO 102), Chemistry I and II (CHM 141, CHM 142).

BIO 335: Plant Ecology and Systematics
3 Credit Hours d.b.a.

This course focuses on two complementary aspects of plant biology: terrestrial plant ecology and plant systematics. For the plant ecology portion, this course will address the underpinnings of the field including a brief history, the species or plant population as an ecological unit, the plant community as an ecological unit, and the influence of environmental factors on individual plants, plant populations, and plant communities. Succession and disturbance will be investigated in the context of the ecosystem concept. In addition, the sampling and classification of plant communities will be addressed. For the plant systematics portion of this course, students will learn how major groups of vascular plants are classified, named, and identified. Special attention will be given to the identification of the native regional flora. (3 hours lecture). Prerequisites: Biology I and II (BIO 101, BIO 102) and General Ecology (BIO 210), or permission of the instructor.

BIO 340: Cell Biology
4 Credit Hours d.b.a.

This course will present the cell theory which is concerned with the principles that are relevant to all of the biological sciences, and one of the unifying concepts in modern biological science. The knowledge of fundamentals of cell structure and function will provide a foundation in cell biology that will support further learning in fields related to biology. (3 hours lecture, 3 hours lab). Prerequisites: Biology I and II (BIO 101, BIO 102), Organic Chemistry (CHM 241), Genetics (BIO 225).

BIO 350: Anatomy & Physiology I
4 Credit Hours d.b.a.

The first semester of a two-semester sequence dealing with the anatomy & physiology of the human body. In this first semester, the students will begin with an introduction to the biochemistry and cell biology of the tissues that make up the organ systems of the body. Then the subject matter will deal specifically with the individual organ systems. The first group of organ systems covered will be those involved with the protection, support and movement of the body. The remainder of the semester will be spent investigating the role of the nervous system in regulation and integration of the body. Each week there will be a laboratory devoted to exploring basic physiological mechanisms, such as muscle mechanics, or identification of anatomical structures by dissection of animal models. (3 hours lecture, 2 hours lab). Prerequisites: Biology I and II (BIO 101, BIO 102).

BIO 351: Anatomy & Physiology II
4 Credit Hours d.b.a.

The second semester of a two-semester sequence dealing with the anatomy & physiology of the human body. In this semester, the students will continue their studies on the structure and function of the human organ systems. The semester will be devoted to studies of the organ systems involved in maintenance of the body, reproduction and embryonic development. Each week there will be a laboratory devoted to exploring basic physiological mechanisms, such as mechanics of the heart cycle, lung mechanics and kidney function or identification of anatomical structures by dissection of animal models. (3 hours lecture, 2 hours lab). Prerequisites: Biology I and II (BIO 101, BIO 102). A&P I (BIO 350)

BIO 355: Plant Physiology
3 Credit Hours Spring Sem.

This course presents the study of the structure and function of plant and plant parts. The metabolic processes of plants will be studied, including reproduction, photosynthesis, growth, and development. The responses of plants to environmental and seasonal influences will also be covered. Laboratory sessions will allow students to explore topics and gain a greater understanding through the process of discovery. (2 hours lecture, 3 hours lab). Prerequisites: Biology I and II (BIO 101, BIO 102) and Chemistry I or II (CHM 141, CHM 142).

BIO 361: Entomology
4 Credit Hours Fall Sem.

Students will learn about the biology and classification of insects. Topics covered include insect diversity, morphology, physiology, and behavior. For the lab portion of the course, students will collect, observe, and classify insects based on morphological characteristics. (3 hours lecture, 3 hours lab). Prerequisites: Biology I and II (BIO 101, BIO 102) or permission of the instructor.

BIO 362: Ichthyology
3 Credit Hours Spring Sem.

Ichthyology is the scientific study of fishes. This includes morphology, physiology, and ecology of freshwater and marine fishes. Structure, function, evolution, and behavior of fish are discussed as adaptations to the environment. Laboratory exercises are designed to provide the student with the opportunity to explore the internal and external morphology of fishes, to observe common behavior, and to practice taxonomic identification of fishes using dichotomous keys. (5 contact hours). Prerequisites: Biology I and II (BIO 101, BIO 102).

BIO 363: Mammalogy
4 Credit Hours Spring Sem.

This course deals with the biology of mammals. Topics will include origins and evolution, classification, zoogeography, physiology, reproduction, ecology, behavior, and the relations between mammals and humans. Students will also learn to identify the mammals of the Adirondacks. (3 hours lecture, 3 hours lab). Prerequisites: Biology I and II (BIO 101, BIO 102).

BIO 364: Ornithology
4 Credit Hours Spring Sem.

Ornithology is the study of birds. Lecture topics in the course will address the physiology, behavior, ecology and evolution of birds. The laboratory portion of the course will address bird morphology, behavior and vocalizations as it relates to bird identification and will include several field trips to local birding areas. (3 hours lecture, 3 hours lab). Prerequisites: Biology I and II (BIO 101, BIO 102).

BIO 371: Microbial Ecology
3 Credit Hours d.b.a.

Many of today's environmental problems, as well as their solutions, are interwoven with the microbial component of the global ecosystem. Building on the foundations established in Biology I (BIO 101) and General Ecology (BIO 210), this course is designed to explore the significance and role of microorganisms with relation to the earth's resources and the maintenance of environmental conditions necessary to sustain life. Students will study microbial communities and ecosystems in depth, and learn how these systems are assessed. Based on the knowledge of microbial processes, students will study the importance of microbial diversity, the influence of microbial processes on global change, and the contributions of microorganisms toward sustainable ecological systems. (3 hours lecture). Prerequisites: Two semesters of biology and an ecology course. Biology I (BIO 101) and General Ecology (BIO 210)

BIO 430: Biometrics
3 Credit Hours Spring Sem.

This course will present a computer-based approach to statistics as applied to biological systems. Students will be exposed to real experimental data to study the methods used to analyze that data. The course will give students an appreciation of the widespread use of statistics and its importance in decision making. The methods that will be emphasized in this course are experimental design, sampling techniques, regression analysis, analysis of variance, and non-parametric tests. (4 hours lecture). Prerequisite: Statistics (MAT 210).

BIO 455: Biotechnology
4 Credit Hours d.b.a.

This course provides an introduction to Biotechnology and an overview of current applications in a variety of professional fields. Uses of genetic and molecular techniques in environmental science, agriculture, industry, food processing, medicine, forensics, and plant and animal population studies will be addressed. The basic concepts of DNA technologies will be introduced and described, including DNA cloning, genetic engineering, fingerprinting, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Additional topics will include the ethical issues and global impacts of biotechnology, antibody production, and transgenic technology. (3 hours lecture, 3 hours lab). Prerequisites: Biology I (BIO 101), Genetics (BIO 225), plus at least Junior-level standing or permission of the instructor.

BIO 457: Aquatic Invertebrates
3 Credit Hours d.b.a

This course explores the ecology of invertebrates in freshwater ecosystems. Special attention will be given to taxonomy and diversity, the role of invertebrates in aquatic food webs, and the implications non-indigenous invertebrates have on aquatic systems. The laboratory component is designed to provide students with skills in invertebrate sampling, identification, and culturing. (2 hours lecture, 3 hours laboratory). Prerequisites: Biology I and II (BIO 101, BIO 102), General Ecology (BIO 210), or permission of the instructor.

BIO 472: Paleoecology
4 Credit Hours Spring Sem.

This course provides an introduction to paleoecology, the study and documentation of past ecosystems and development of long-term perspectives on ecological processes, environmental management practices, and environmental changes of both human and non-human origins. Lab activities include coring techniques, sediment and microfossil analyses, sample dating methods, field trips within and/or outside the Adirondacks, oral presentations, scientific writing, and computer applications. (3 hours lecture, 3 hours lab). Prerequisites: Biology I and II (BIO 101, BIO 102) and Chemistry I (CHM 141).

BIO 474: Physiological Ecology
3 Credit Hours d.b.a.

This course deals with the physiological mechanisms by which organisms adapt to their physical environment. Among the aspects of the physical environment considered are water, flow, drought, heat, cold, salinity, pH, pollutants, and resource availability. In addition to metabolic responses, the course also considers scaling and behavioral responses. (3 hours lecture). Prerequisites: Biology I and II (BIO 101, BIO 102).

BIO 476: Winter Ecology
3 Credit Hours Spring Sem.

In this course, students will apply the basic principles of chemistry, physics, and biology to understand ecosystem processes in cold environments. The course will include the ways in which winter and cold regions influence community composition and structure, species distribution, population survivorship, and hydrological routing. Students will also discover the psychological and physical boundaries that cold-weather environments present to humans. The course will integrate lecture and field exercises to facilitate student-directed studies. (3 hours lecture). Prerequisites: General Ecology (BIO 210) or equivalent, Statistics (MAT 210), and Junior standing or permission of the instructor.

BIO 490: Biology Externship
1 to 6 Credit Hours Fall/Spring Sems.

Students spend from 80 to 400 or more hours working with an organization such as a government agency, a non-profit conservation/environmental group, a research institute, an industry, a business, etc. that carries out biologically-related activities. The student must identify a sponsoring supervisor at the chosen organization and have the supervisor provide a written description of the proposed student work plan. It is the responsibility of the student to secure the externship and to obtain approval from the Dean of Sciences, Liberal Arts, and Business. Grading is on a pass/fail basis. Prerequisite: One full year of course work in major.

BIO 499: Special Topics in Biology
3 Credit Hours d.b.a

In this course students will engage in more in-depth study within a major subdiscipline of biology, such as cellular biology, physiology, organismal biology or ecology. In most cases, student demand and/or faculty expertise are factors that influence the selection and timing of this course. Students enrolling in the course will be expected to have foundational biological knowledge. This course is intended to supplement those designated biology courses described in the PSC catalog. Prerequisite: Junior standing.

CHM 141: Chemistry I
4 Credit Hours Fall Sem.

This beginning science course focuses on the fundamental principles and laws underlying chemical action, their integration with the theories of atomic structure and chemical bonding, and correlation with the position on the periodic chart. Students will study atomic structure, periodicity, chemical bonding, and states of matter and chemical measurements (stoichiometry). The course has a required three-hour laboratory that focuses on general laboratory techniques pertinent to the lecture material. (3 hours lecture, 3 hours lab).

CHM 142: Chemistry II
4 Credit Hours Spring Sem.

This course is a continuation of Chemistry I (CHM 141) and continues the focus on the fundamental principles and laws underlying chemical action. Students will study oxidation/reduction, solutions, ionization and electrolysis, acids, bases and salts, chemical and ionic equilibrium, coordination compounds, kinetics, and a short introduction to organic chemistry. The course has a required three-hour laboratory that focuses on qualitative analysis. (3 hours lecture, 3 hours lab). Prerequisite: Chemistry I (CHM 141).

CHM 241: Organic Chemistry I
4 Credit Hours Fall Sem.

The course is designed to cover the wide range of topics concerning the chemistry of carbon. Students will study chemical bonding, nomenclature and reactivity of hydrocarbons, alcohols, ethers, and alkyl halides, configuration of alkanes, and cycloalkanes, and stereochemistry. Additionally, students will learn various reactions mechanisms, with an emphasis on nucleophilic substitution reactions. The laboratory will focus on fundamental techniques in organic chemistry, e.g., distillation, purification, synthesis, chromatography and spectroscopy. (3 hours lecture, 3 hours lab). Prerequisites: Chemistry I and II (CHM 141, CHM 142).

CHM 242: Organic Chemistry II
4 Credit Hours d.b.a.

This course is designed to be a continuation of Organic Chemistry I (CHM 241) in the study of carbon compounds. Students will study reactions of aromatic compounds, aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids, amines, esters, carbohydrates, and lipids. Additionally, students will study the theory of various spectroscopic methods of structure determination. The laboratory will concentrate on the synthesis and analysis of organic compounds. This course, along with Organic Chemistry I (CHM 241), is designed to satisfy the requirements for those students transferring to four-year institutions in pursuit of a baccalaureate degree. (3 hours lecture, 3 hours lab). Prerequisite: Organic Chemistry I (CHM 241)

CHM 310: Environmental Chemistry
4 Credit Hours Spring Sem.

This course emphasizes environmental laboratory techniques, precision, and safety. The course is a study of the sources, reactions, transport, effects, and fates of chemical species in the study of water, soil, and air environments, as well as the influence of human activity upon these processes. (3 hours lecture, 3 hours lab). Prerequisite: Chemistry I (CHM 141) or equivalent.

CHM 330: Biochemistry
3 Credit Hours d.b.a.

This course provides students with a broad overview of the structure, function, and metabolism of carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids which make up living organisms. Students will become familiar with the value and applications of recombinant DNA technology, enzymes and their activity, eukaryotic gene expression and key biochemical pathways and cycles. (3 hours lecture). Prerequisites: Biology I and II (BIO 101, BIO 102), Chemistry I and II (CHM 141, CHM 142).

CHM 430: Instrumentation
3 Credit Hours d.b.a.

This course introduces the students to the science of measurements and to a variety of analytical laboratory and field instruments, including pH and specific ion meters, temperature sensors, D.O. meters, flow meters, pressure sensors, spectrophotometers, and weather stations. Students will become familiar with the operating principle, proper application, and limitations of each instrument. They will also gain experience with setting up remote sensing equipment which makes use of data loggers and telecommunications. In addition, students will learn basic trouble-shooting techniques. (2 hours lecture, 3 hours lab). Prerequisites: Chemistry I and II (CHM 141, CHM 142) and Physics I (PHY 241).

ENV 100: Introductory Environmental Science
3 Credit Hours Spring Sem.

This course is designed to introduce non-environmental major students to key concepts and principles that govern how nature works. Students will gain an understanding of and appreciate the need to deal with environmental issues such as sustainability, the inter-connection of the economy and the ecosystem, and the balancing of problems and solutions in an integrated manner on a personal, local, regional, national and global basis. Introductory Environmental Science and Environment, Resources & Society I (SOC 105) cannot both be taken to satisfy graduation requirements. This course will not satisfy graduation requirements for the Environmental Studies Programs. (3 hours lecture).

ENV 110: The Adirondack Environment
3 Credit Hours Fall Sem.

In this course, students will be introduced to the Adirondack Park. The class integrates lectures with visits to various field sites and institutions/businesses throughout the region. Topics will span disciplines from management to science and include the history of the Adirondack Park, land use, natural resources, the physical environment, ecosystems and regional environmental issues. In addition, students will be acquainted with current research or environmental activities in the Adirondacks. (3 hours lecture).

ENV 120: Geology
3 Credit Hours d.b.a.

This course provides students with a broad overview of the foundations and scope of Earth Sciences. Students will gain an understanding of the physical and chemical processes that shape the Earth's continents and ocean basins, gain familiarity with long-term environmental perspectives based on the geologic time scale, will learn to identify and classify common rocks, minerals, and soils, and will develop a basic awareness of the interactions of global and regional geography, climatic processes, and biota from a geological perspective. (3 hours lecture).

ENV 222: Natural Habitat Interpretation
3 Credit Hours Fall Sem.

In this field-based course, various natural habitats found throughout the Adirondack Park are explored and studied. Students will travel to and investigate the structure and composition of various habitats, as well as learn about the ecological relationships occurring there. Field trips will include lowland and montane forest communities, alpine tundra, swamps, bogs, marshes, and farmland in the Champlain Valley. Students are expected to participate in at least three Saturday field trips and should plan their schedules accordingly. (3 hours lecture, 3 hours lab). Prerequisite: Biology I (BIO 101).

ENV 290: Environmental Studies Practicum
3 Credit Hours Fall/Spring Sems.

Ideally, the student will participate in a practicum in his/her third or fourth semester. The practicum can take several forms. The student can participate in one of the practicums developed by the College, e.g., the PSC Recycling Coordinator, or a part-time intern at the Adirondack Park Agency, Department of Environmental Conservation, or the Adirondack Park Visitor Interpretive Center. Or, an appropriate independent study relationship can be arranged by the student with the approval of the Dean of the Division or Program Coordinator. Enrollment in either option requires a GPA of 2.00 or better at the end of the last full semester. This course is open to any student, regardless of course of study.

ENV 315: Environmental Law and Regulatory Process
3 Credit Hours Spring Sem.

In this course, the students will learn the legal basis for environmental protection in the U.S.A. They will begin by studying the legal system and procedures. Students will then study specific legislation governing air and water pollution, forest and wildlife management, pesticide use, and the disposal of toxic wastes. The National Environmental Policy Act, and how this landmark piece of legislation has changed the way decisions are made in the United States will be covered. The course will conclude with a study of international conventions governing the global environment. (3 hours lecture). Prerequisite: Ethics (HUM 270).

ENV 330: Conservation Biology
3 Credit Hours Spring Sem.

The major topic of this course is biological diversity. Students will explore the various meanings of diversity, the role of diversity in natural systems and its importance in human welfare. Students will also study present and past biogeographic patterns, and factors affecting those patterns, with special emphasis on human impacts. Finally, students will focus on the methods used to ameliorate negative impacts on diversity within the framework of the social, economic, political and ecological problems involved in this endeavor. (3 hours lecture). Prerequisites: Biology I and II (BIO 101, BIO 102), and General Ecology (BIO 210) or Forest Ecology (FOR 310).

ENV 350: Atmospheric Science
3 Credit Hours Fall Sem.

This course will provide a study of the nature and causes of atmospheric phenomena and pollution, along with basic physical and chemical processes and energetics. Air Pollution will also be covered along with visits to our New York State Department of Environmental Conservation Air Pollution Monitoring Station. Topics include composition and structure of the atmosphere, atmospheric thermodynamics, hydrostatics, solar and terrestrial radiation, cloud and precipitation processes, elementary dynamics, atmospheric wind and pressure patterns, and air pollution and its effect on the Adirondack Park. Prerequisites: Chemistry I (CHM 141) and Chemistry II (CHM 142).

ENV 361: Limnology
3 Credit Hours Fall Sem.

The purpose of this course is to cover the concepts and natural laws which apply to lake ecosystems. Lakes in the Adirondack Park are looked at to study the factors that affect lake biology and chemistry. Emphasis is placed on the basic study of limnology, lake productivity, and the presence of cultural eutrophication. (Lectures and labs). Prerequisite: Biology I (BIO 101).

ENV 420: Environmental Impact Assessment
3 Credit Hours Fall Sem.

The purpose of this course is to help the student recognize the profound impact of human activity on the inter-relations of all components of the natural environment, particularly the influences of population growth, high-density urbanization, industrial expansion, resource exploitation and new and expanding technological advances. It will explore the critical importance of restoring and maintaining environmental quality to the overall welfare and development of mankind. Finally, it will cover the policies and procedures used by federal, state, and local governments to create and maintain conditions under which people and nature can exist in harmony. (3 hours lecture). Prerequisites: Biology I and II (BIO 101, BIO 102), and one Ecology course.

ENV 431: Environmental Simulation Modeling
3 Credit Hours Fall Sem.

This course begins with a discussion of types of models and their uses in environmental management and research. Although the students will create simple models, the major emphasis is on familiarization with existing models currently used in environmental management and sources of the input data. A balance of resource management and resource science perspectives will be presented. (3 hours lecture). Prerequisites: General Ecology (BIO 210) or equivalent, and Calculus I (MAT 241).

ENV 450: Advanced Conservation Science
3 Credit Hours d.b.a

This course will address current issues in the field of conservation science. Topics will include, but may not be limited to: old-growth forest ecology and conservation, riparian ecology and conservation, role of top carnivores in regulating terrestrial ecosystems, the focal species approach, problems relating to spatial scale, ecological classification for conservation, endangered ecosystems, ecological community representation, ecosystem integrity, gap analysis, designing protected areas and wildlife corridors, habitat-based conservation planning, regional and continental restoration, and development of eco-regional conservation plans. Case studies will be examined. (3 hours lecture). Prerequisites: General Ecology (BIO 210), Conservation Biology (ENV 330) plus at least Junior-level standing or permission of the instructor.

ENV 455: Sustainable Development
3 Credit Hours Spring Sem.

This course provides an historic look at the demographic pressure on renewable and non-renewable resources and demonstrates the need for management strategies. Management of both resource supply and demand is considered. Sustainable resource management methods are applied to specific resources including soil, water, minerals, forests, energy, and food. The inter-relationship and sustainability between natural and cultural resources are studied. (3 hours lecture). Prerequisite: Junior standing, or permission of the instructor.

ENV 471: Stream Ecology and Management
3 Credit Hours d.b.a.

Structure and function of river and stream ecosystems will be studied. Variables at several spatial and temporal scales will be hierarchically linked to the physical, chemical and biological attributes of stream environments. Conceptual models will be used to describe constraints that large-scale geomorphic patterns and processes place upon small-scale patterns and processes as related to primary production, invertebrates and vertebrates. The rationale behind watershed-based approaches and methodologies to assessment and monitoring of stream ecosystems will be explored. Students will learn how to design a watershed assessment and monitoring project which links land uses with monitoring data. (2 hours lecture, 3 hours laboratory). Prerequisites: Biology I and II (BIO 101, BIO 102), General Ecology (BIO 210) and a physics course.

ENV 473: Wetlands Ecosystems and Management
3 Credit Hours Fall Sem.

Students will explore the complexities of wetlands on both the ecosystem and management levels. Students will gain an understanding of the critical role wetlands play in an intact landscape by studying the diverse ways in which they develop and function. Students will also gain appreciation for present-day management techniques, including wetland delineation, value assessment, creation and restoration. Students will be asked to participate in three all-day field trips on scheduled Saturdays during the first half of the semester and should plan accordingly. (3 hours lecture). Prerequisites: Biology I and II (BIO 101, BIO 102), one semester of chemistry, and an ecology course.

ENV 499: Special Topics in Environmental Science
3 Credit Hours d.b.a.

This will be a topical course in natural resources management. In this course, students will examine issues of present-day importance to the management of natural resources. The topic of study will change from year to year, as different issues gain prominence. Although the topics will change, the purpose of the course will remain the same. That purpose will be to provide a forum to engage the students in the national, state, or local debate on the management of natural resources. (3 hours lecture). Prerequisite: Permission of the instructor.

PHY 140: Technical Physics
4 Credit Hours Fall/Spring Sems.

A non-calculus based approach to physics introducing the student to the fundamental principles of physics. Topics include dynamics, statics, strength of materials, mechanical work and energy, heat, and electricity. Laboratory work is designed to illustrate the principles discussed in lecture. (3 hours lecture, 3 hours lab). Prerequisite: College Algebra (MAT 125).

PHY 241: Physics I
4 Credit Hours Fall Sem.

This course will introduce students to the branch of physics known as classical mechanics, through a variety of classroom activities. Students will learn about the parameters that describe motion and the inter-relationships between motion and force that are embodied in Newton's laws. They will specifically study straight line motion, plane motion, rotation, equilibrium, and gravitation. Through this study, students will become familiar with the basic concepts that form the foundation of natural science. (3 hours lecture, 3 hours lab).

PHY 242: Physics II
4 Credit Hours d.b.a.

Students continue the study of physics that they began in Physics I (PHY 241). They will continue their study of mechanics with an introduction to fluid mechanics, harmonic wave motion, and sound. In addition, they will study thermodynamics with an emphasis on heat engines and kinetic theory. Finally, they will study electromagnetism. Through this study, students will become familiar with the basic concepts that form the foundation of natural science. (3 hours lecture, 3 hours lab). Prerequisite: Physics I (PHY 241).

SCI 299: Guided Research in Science I
3 Credit Hours d.b.a

This course provides students with the opportunity to conduct advanced study and research in a subject area within the fields of Natural Resources, Science and Liberal Arts that is if of particular interest to them. The study will be selected, designed and conducted by the student under the guidance of a faculty member. (3 hours lecture) Prerequisite: Sophomore standing and permission of the instructor.

SCI 398: Guided Research in Science II
3 Credit Hours d.b.a

This course provides students with the opportunity to conduct advanced study and research in a subject area within the fields of Natural Resources, Sciences and Liberal Arts that is of particular interest to them. The study will be selected, designed and conducted by the student under the guidance of a faculty member. Prerequisite: Junior standing or higher standing and permission of the instructor/advisor.

SCI 399: Guided Research in Science III
3 Credit Hours d.b.a

This course provides students with the opportunity to conduct advanced study and research in a subject area within the fields of Natural Resources, Science and Liberal Arts that is if of particular interest to them. The study will be selected, designed and conducted by the student under the guidance of a faculty member. (3 hours lecture). Prerequisite: Junior standing and permission of the instructor.

SCI 499: Guided Research in Science IV
3 Credit Hours d.b.a

This course provides students with the opportunity to conduct advanced study and research in a subject area within the fields of Natural Resources, Science and Liberal Arts that is if of particular interest to them. The study will be selected, designed and conducted by the student under the guidance of a faculty member. (3 hours lecture). Prerequisite: Senior standing and permission of the instructor.

Social Sciences

POL 200: Origins of American Government and Politics
3 Credit Hours d.b.a.

This course is devoted to a study of the origins and nature of American political thought. A survey of major ideas from Greece, Europe, and Colonial America serves as the basis for an examination of the basic political philosophy in the Declaration of Independence, the Articles of Confederation, and the Constitution of 1787. (3 hours lecture).

POL 201: American Government and Politics Today
3 Credit Hours d.b.a.

A continuation of Origins of American Government and Politics (POL 200), this course is an examination of the structure, organization, and operation of American government at the national level, with emphasis on the relationship between the ideal inherent in American democracy as studied in Origins of American Government and Politics and the actual operation of the government. (3 hours lecture). Prerequisite: Origins of American Government and Politics (POL 200).

POL 202: Politics of the Environment
3 Credit Hours Yearly

This course explores the political process and the conflicting perspective and values involved in environmental policy making. The Adirondack Park and the Champlain Adirondack Biosphere Reserve serve as a regional focus and case study for this capstone experience. (3 hours lecture). Prerequisite: Sophomore standing.

POL 300: Contemporary Political Systems
3 Credit Hours Spring Sem.

This course explores the political systems which operate within our dynamic global village. Special attention will be given to specific articulations of political systems (i.e., transitional democracy, authoritarianism, and liberal-commercial republic), and how they compare to one another with reference to ethical criteria for cultural, economic, and environmental responsibility. In addition, the course will place special emphasis on the temporal-spatial congruence of political systems vis-à-vis socio-economic systems. (3 hours lecture). Prerequisite: Social/Cultural Foundational Experience.

PSY 101: Psychology
3 Credit Hours Fall/Spring Sems.

This course introduces students to the field of psychology. It sets modern psychology in a meaningful context, examining how the discipline has developed from its early traditions through present-day schools of thought. Students will explore the fundamental question of nature versus nurture in the development of the human mind. They will examine human perception, how it can differ from one culture to another, and the manner in which learning occurs. The course ties what we know about cognition, thought, language, and intelligence to the everyday lives of students. Thus, the classroom is viewed as a laboratory. (3 hours lecture).

PSY 102: Psychology of Personality
3 Credit Hours

This course is a continuation of Psychology (PSY 101). The concepts of personality development, learning, intelligence, feelings, emotions, mental illness, and the treatment of mental illness are studied. (3 hours lecture). Prerequisite: Psychology (PSY 101).

PSY 110: Organizational Behavior
3 Credit Hours

Organizations, like organisms, go through a constant process of change and unless modified will experience a life cycle of varying length. The symptoms of failure are not always evident. Often, these symptoms are systemic in nature and indicative of the manner in which the organization is designed and led. This course will focus on identifying these systemic issues while the student becomes aware of the relationships of culture to performance, the evolution of business structure, and the inevitability of change brought on by transformation of national and global economic environments. (3 hours lecture).

PSY 200: Ecopsychology
3 Credit Hours

This is a study of the developmental, therapeutic, and related benefits of exposure to the natural world, from built-up environments like gardens to the wilderness. Developmental benefits focus on self-actualization, skill development, and self concept. Study of nature's healing benefits-physical and psychological-will form a major part of the course. Among other topics covered are: biophilia, the ecological unconscious, synergistic interplay of planetary and personal well-being, and environmental therapies. A major research paper is required. (3 hours lecture). Prerequisites: Two Social Science/ Humanities courses or permission of the instructor.

SOC 101: Sociology I
3 Credit Hours Fall/Spring Sems.

Sociology I provides students with an introduction to the field of sociology, the social science discipline that places emphasis on human interaction. The course offers a systematic study of the relationships between people in groups and between groups and society. The importance of culture to human socialization is emphasized, thus allowing students to investigate the nature of relationships with people from different backgrounds. (3 hours lecture).

SOC 102: Sociology II
3 Credit Hours d.b.a.

This is a continuation of Sociology I (SOC 101). Attention is given to contemporary social issues, their causes and solutions. Sociological principles learned in Sociology I are applied, and there is opportunity for more independent study. Social trends and social theories are covered. (3 hours lecture). Prerequisite: Sociology I (SOC 101).

SOC 105: Environment, Resources & Society I
3 Credit Hours Fall Sem.

The introductory course in environmental studies explores the biogeophysical aspects of environmental problems within an historical perspective. The emphasis in this course is on two questions: Who are environmentalists? And, why are they concerned? (3 hours lecture).

SOC 106: Environment, Resources & Society II
3 Credit Hours Spring Sem.

A continuation of Environment, Resources & Society I (SOC 105), stressing the inter-relationship between the natural and social sciences and the important contributions made by the arts and humanities in the inter-disciplinary approach to environmental solutions. The emphasis in this course is on two questions: What do environmentalists want? And, how can it be achieved? (3 hours lecture). Prerequisite: Environment, Resources & Society I (SOC 105).

SOC 110: Non-Western Cultures
3 Credit Hours Spring Sem.

Humans organize at various levels in order to assure themselves of life's necessities, and to maintain a sense of order in their lives. In addition, culture is considered to be the overarching organizational framework which provides humans with the ability to live successfully in a variety of physical environments. This course provides students with an opportunity to gain insight into the cultures of non-western societies. It will focus on the technology, ideology, and sociology associated with cultures found in China, Tropical Africa, and Caribbean America. (3 hours lecture).

SOC 115: Adirondack Expedition
3 Credit Hours Fall Sem.

Using the local Adirondack landscape as text and laboratory, this course will introduce first-year Environmental Studies students to the local social, environmental, economic, and cultural issues found in their field of study. Through team-building and adventure exercises, each student will learn skills and methods basic to an academic investigation of the Adirondack landscape. Activities will include canoeing, hiking, and trip planning, to name a few. Field trips may include visits to the St. Regis Canoe Area, the High Peaks Wilderness Area, Historic Saranac Lake, Lake Placid's Olympic venues and Tourist Information Center, the Adirondack Visitor Interpretative Center, and the Adirondack Museum. (3 hours lecture/lab).

SOC 199: Special Topics in Social Sciences
3 Credit Hours d.b.a.

This course will provide students with the opportunity to study social science topics that are not part of the traditional course offerings. The topics are selected for their potential to contribute to the intellectual development of students. In most cases, student demand or faculty expertise (or both) are factors that influence the selection of the topics. (3 hours lecture).

SOC 200: Social Issues
3 Credit Hours Spring Sem.

This course provides students with an opportunity to examine contemporary social issues in the United States, and the manner in which similar issues confront societies elsewhere. Emphasis is placed on macro-societal issues, such as structural inequalities associated with race, gender, age, educational access, and work opportunities. In addition, students will explore the social dimensions of population growth vis-à-vis environmental degradation, the politics of underdevelopment, and the concentration of economic and political power. (3 hours lecture).

SOC 210: The SIXTIES!
3 Credit Hours d.b.a.

This course will cover the political and social origins of The Sixties (as a phenomenon), as well as the major political and social changes during that period. It will start with the Eisenhower administration and will end with the U.S. withdrawal from Vietnam. Highlighted will be the influence of Eisenhower, JFK, Black Power, the role of the media, and so on. (3 hours lecture).

SOC 299: Special Topics in Social Sciences
3 Credit Hours d.b.a.

This course will provide students with an opportunity to study social science topics that are not normally offered. These topics are selected for their potential to contribute to the intellectual development of students. In most cases, student demand or faculty expertise (or both) are factors that influence the selection and timing of these courses. Special topics courses might include marriage and the family, Canadian history, introduction to anthropology, Caribbean America, among others. (3 hours lecture).

SOC 300: Cultural Anthropology
3 Credit Hours Fall Sem.

Anthropology involves the systematic study of humankind and the unique and diverse ways in which humans have successfully adapted to vastly different environmental settings throughout the world. Cultural Anthropology provides students with an opportunity to explore and understand the diversity of human thought and behavior that characterize different cultures. Through the application of theoretical frameworks developed by anthropologists and the use of case studies from five continents, students will learn how we, in the Western world, can understand and appreciate the diversity of cultures and cultural expression found throughout the world today. (3 hours lecture). Prerequisite: Social/Cultural Foundational Experience.

SOC 305: Gerontology
3 Credit Hours d.b.a.

Gerontology is the study of aging. This course will be an introduction to the social aspects of aging. Among the topics of interest are family relationships, health, economics, retirement, widowhood, public policy, social work, and planning for changing demographics and care of the elderly. This course will enable students to better communicate with the aging population and, therefore, anticipate their needs. Students whose career goals include working with people of various ages will benefit from this course which focuses on this growing segment of the population. (3 hours lecture).

SOC 310: Mobility in Modern Society
3 Credit Hours Fall Sem.

Movement in society stems from a need for fulfillment. People move for a variety of reasons, yet as Abraham Maslow pointed out in his Hierarchy of Needs, individuals seek out environments that provide survival (the basic mobility motivator), security (in modern times movement is sometimes associated with finding an environment that is friendly and conducive to growth), belongingness (being part of a group, event, or community), self-esteem (seeking out a destination that offers an opportunity to realize self-worth), and self-actualization (an opportunity to reach or exceed one's personal expectations). The global service economy that molds modern society has created a new breed of mobile residents who travel for reasons that stretch from pleasure to business, from planned activity to spontaneous decisions, from escapism to exploration. Each of these travelers becomes part of a mini-society within which the appropriate, specialized, human interactions are facilitated. This course will focus on historical travel and how politics, technology, business, and social issues have been and will continue to be an influence on the mobility patterns of a modern society. (3 hours lecture). Prerequisite: Sociology I (SOC 101).

SOC 400: The American Labor Movement
3 Credit Hours Spring Sem.

An historical perspective of the labor movement in America from the early days of manufacturing, through the formation of unions, to empowered business environments of the nineties, and projected labor issues in the near future. The course will focus on how organized labor instills a sense of pride and community and how it affects the positive interactions within a society. Opposing issues of management and labor will be discussed as well as the process of collective bargaining as a vehicle for compromise. (3 hours lecture).

SOC 460: Capstone Research Methods
3 Credit Hours

This course covers the basic research methods used to investigate a research question. Research question formulation, study and survey design, data collection, data analysis and discussion of results will be covered. The seminar will focus on the development of a formal literature review and preliminary research design with special application to business research. (3 hours lecture). Prerequisite: Senior standing in BMES program only.

SOC 461: Capstone Project Planning Seminar
1 Credit Hour Spring Sem.

This course is designed to provide students who plan to complete a Capstone Independent Project (SOC 462) with the foundation for their work on their Project. Students are expected to broaden their understanding and application of skills gained in courses leading up to the Capstone, such as literature review, research methods, study design, and effective communication of information. The result of this effort will be a completed, approved proposal, prepared according to the guidelines established for Capstone Projects. Each student will select a mentor who will serve as the student's supervisor for the Project. (1 hour lecture).

SOC 462: Capstone Project
3 Credit Hours Fall/Spring Sems.

The Capstone Independent Project is designed to be a culminating endeavor based upon student's coursework, reading, interests and experience. Through the application of principles, theories and methods learned, students analyze, synthesize and evaluate information. The Project provides a representative sample of a student's work that may be used to assess student learning. Individually, students will work independently on their projects developed during the Capstone Project Planning Seminar (SOC 461), under the supervision of a mentor. Students are responsible for satisfying the established standards for successful completion of the Capstone Project, which include a substantial written report and an oral presentation. The course is offered fall and spring semesters and may be designated an honors course. (1 hour lecture and independent time). Prerequisites: Capstone Project Planning Seminar (SOC 461) and senior standing.

SOC 463: Capstone Group Project Planning Seminar
1 Credit Hour Fall Sem.

This course is designed to provide students who plan to complete a Capstone Group Project (SOC 464) with the foundation for their work on their Project. Students are expected to broaden their understanding and application of skills gained in courses leading up to the Capstone, such as literature review, research methods, study design, and effective communication of information. Students will work with their course professor to select the focus of their Capstone Project, design the study and schedule activities that may be required in advance of the semester they complete their Projects. The result of this effort will be a completed plan, prepared according to the guidelines established for Capstone Group Projects.

SOC 464: Capstone Group Project
3 Credit Hours Fall/Spring Sems.

The Capstone Group Project is designed to be a culminating endeavor based upon students' course work, reading, interests and experience. Through the application of principles, theories and methods learned, students analyze, synthesize and evaluate information. The Project provides a representative sample of students' work that may be used to assess student learning. The Capstone Group Project enables the class of students to investigate a topic of interest in their program area, which will be determined during the Capstone Group Project Planning Seminar (SOC 463). Students will work in small groups, and individually within their group, toward the completion of the overall class goal. Students are required to prepare a substantial written report demonstrating the students' project focus, as well as the integration of their work, and an oral presentation for their group. Capstone Group Project is offered in the fall and spring semesters. (1 hour lecture, and group meeting time). Prerequisites: Capstone Group Project Planning Seminar (SOC 463) and senior standing.

SOC 499: Special Topics in Social Sciences
3 Credit Hours d.b.a.

Students will study topics chosen because of their present-day importance to the traditional social sciences. This course is more advanced than Special Topics in Social Sciences (SOC 199) and assumes a deeper and broader background in the enrolled student. It is intended to augment and supplement the designated social science courses described in this catalog. (3 hours lecture). Prerequisite: Junior standing.

Surveying

SRV 100: Surveying I: Fundamentals of Surveying
3 Credits Fall Sem.

Introduces the student to the field of surveying and how it fits into forestry and other professions. Surveying I gives the students the opportunity to be introduced to surveying using traditional methodologies. The course provides a foundation for then translating these skills and knowledge into computer applications in SRV 101 Surveying II Surveying Automation. Prerequisite(s): Accuplacer placement into Quantitative Foundation or higher. Co-requisite: MAT 125 College Algebra

SRV 101: Surveying II: Surveying Automation
3 Credit Hours Spring Sem.

Building on the traditional skills and knowledge gained in Surveying I, Surveying II gives the student the opportunity to translate those skills to computer based applications. Through project based activities and research opportunities, students will discover their role in present and future trends in the surveying profession. (2 hours lecture, 3 hours lab). Prerequisite(s): MAT 125 College Algebra, SRV 100 - Surveying I: Fundamentals of Surveying, Co-requisite: MAT 145 Trigonometry

SRV 110: Graphic Communications
3 Credits

A technical drawing course introducing basic skills necessary for the communication of ideas and designs as applied to the fields of surveying, forestry, and architecture. Types of drawings include plans, maps, introduction to CADD, and architectural drawings. (2 hours lab).

SRV 201: Intro to Field Surveying I
2 Credit Hours Summer Sess.

This introductory course is the first in a series. In this portion students learn taping, leveling, thedolite and electronic distance measuring. Students will also become familiar with the history of surveying. Prerequisite: Trigonometry (MAT 145)

SRV 210: Photogrammetry
3 Credits d.b.a.

This course introduces the student to the surveying applications associated with aerial photography. The students develop traditional skills at measuring areas, distances, bearings, heights of objects and elevations of the ground. Basic photogrammetric concepts will be introduced and softcopy photogrammetric software will be used. Surveying requirements for aerial photogrammetry will be discussed. Prerequisite(s): MAT 145 Trigonometry (can be taken as a co-requisite), SRV 100 Surveying I: Fundamentals of Surveying

SRV 220: Computer Aided Design and Drafting (CAD) I: Fundamentals of CAD
3 Credit Hours Spring Sem.

The course introduces students to the fundamentals of computer aided design and drafting, including software, hardware, and peripherals. Emphasis will be on 2-D applications of CAD. (2 hrs lec. 2 hrs lab).

SRV 221: Computer Aided Design and Drafting (CAD) II: Surveying Applications
3 Credit Hours Spring

This advanced CAD course for surveyors emphasizes the surveying-specific modules within CAD for displaying a variety of surveying data. Students will be asked to develop surface models from topographic data. Maps, plats and construction drawings will be emphasized. (2 hrs lec 2 hrs lab) Prerequisite: SRV 220 CAD I, SRV 250 Topographic Surveying

SRV 235 Surveying III: Field Experience
3 Credit Hours Summer

This culminating surveying series course provides the students with the opportunity to apply the theories and techniques gained in Surveying I and II to practical, authentic, field surveying projects. Students will also develop externship proposals. (40 hrs for 3 weeks) (lec/lab). Prerequisite(s): MAT 145 Trigonometry, SRV 101 Surveying II: Surveying Automation

SRV 240: Introduction to Field Surveying II
4 Credit Hours Fall Sem.

This course is the second in a series which focuses on practical techniques for a variety of surveying problems, including elements of route, construction, boundary, planimetric and topographic surveys. Field and lecture problems include contour mapping, grade lines, horizontal and vertical highway curves, horizontal and vertical control, stadia, short base triangulation, boundary survey, building location and batter boards, area and volume determinations, and a detailed topographic map. (24 per week, 5 weeks). Prerequisite: SRV 201 Introduction to Field Surveying I

SRV 245: Principles of Surveying
4 Credit Hours Fall Sem.

This course covers the basics of plane surveying which includes taping, differential levels, grade problems, cut and fill determination, open and closed traverses, horizontal and vertical control networks, area determination, stadia, horizontal and vertical curves, topographic mapping, and EDM use and application. Field work incorporates all lecture topics with emphasis on a detailed topographic map utilizing the EDM equipment. (3 hours lecture, 4 hours lab). Co - requisite(s): MAT 145 Trigonometry

SRV 250: Topographic Surveying
4 Credit Hours Fall Sem.

The hands-on experience the student receives in this course emphasizes field work, calculations and computer applications required to map and report topographic data. By this point in the curriculum students will have gained on-the-job experience through their externship. This course gives students the opportunity to reflect on their externship experience in order to identify strengths and weaknesses as a surveying professional. (24 hours per week, 5 weeks) Prerequisite(s): SRV 235 Surveying III: Field Experience

SRV 260: Route Surveying
4 Credit Hours Fall Sem.

This advanced surveying course focuses on route surveying and design. The student will study a variety of techniques to design and layout roads from preliminary to final surveys. The final project is a complete plan and profile with basic road specifications for a two lane road. (24 hours per week, 5 weeks). Prerequisite(s): SRV 253 - Surveying III: Field Experience, Co-requisite: SRV 250 Topographic Surveying

SRV 270: Law and Land Surveying
3 Credit Hours Spring Sem.

The course considers the legal aspects of boundary location. Emphasis is on deed research and interpretation, evidence procedures, professional ethics and case law. Through this experience students will obtain a foundation in legal standards for preparing and researching land records. (3 hours lecture). Prerequisite: Communication Foundation

SRV 290: Problem Solving in Surveying
3 Credit Hours Spring Sem.

Using problem solving techniques students will develop solutions for typical surveying dilemmas encountered in the profession. This course also serves as a culminating experience in the surveying program; as such students will have the opportunity to prepare for and take the ACSM Certified Surveying Technician Exam Level I. (2 lecture 3 hr lab). Prerequisite(s): SRV 260 Route Surveying, Co-requisite: SRV 270 Law and Land Surveying

Industry Work Experience

WRK 190 Surveying Externship
0 Credits Summer

The externship experience provides students with the opportunity to become familiar with what it is like to work in the surveying profession. This experience should provide the student with valuable feedback about how effectively students are being prepared for the work force that can help the student focus on needed skills and knowledge during the remainder of the program. Prerequisite(s): Externship proposal submitted in SRV 235 Surveying III: Field Experience or equivalent proposal approved by the Dean.

WRK 290 Culinary/Hospitality Industry Work Experience/Internship
0 Credit Hours Fall/Spring/Summer

Students apply knowledge from classroom learning to on the job employment experiences that support their career goals. Students are required to complete a minimum of 400 hours of documented work experience. This course satisfies the Associates degree requirement and the first half of the baccalaureate degree requirement for industry work experience. Students must complete a minimum of 200 work hours at any given Internship site. Assistance with Internship placement is available through the Office of Hospitality Internships.

WRK 490 Industry Work Experience Internship
0 Credit Hours Fall/Spring/Summer

Students apply knowledge from classroom learning and from previous industry work experience to on the job employment experiences that support their career goals. Students are required to complete a minimum of 400 hours of documented work experience. This course satisfies the second half of the baccalaureate degree requirement for industry work experience. Students must complete a minimum of 200 work hours at any given Internship site. Assistance with Internship placement is available through the Office of Hospitality Internships. Prerequisite(s): WRK 290 Industry Work Experience Internship