Course Descriptions

Some courses listed in this catalog have a designation indicating the marking period (normally the semester) when offered. These designations are Fall, Spring and Summer. Due to the dynamic nature of the College’s academic programs, these designations should be used only as guides. For specific and current information, search for courses in SelfService. Prerequisites for courses must be satisfactorily completed prior to enrollment in the listed course.

Baking

BAK 150: Foundations of Baking (CULA/CASM)
4 Credit Hours

In this laboratory course, the student will be exposed to a foundational array of baking preparations and skills. The student will be exposed to quick breads; yeast-raised products including artisan breads; pies, tarts, cookies, and cakes; and introductory pastry items such as pâte à choux, puff pastry, and phyllo dough, as well as custards, fillings, and cold dessert sauces. Additional emphasis will be placed on formula conversion, scaling, and mixing techniques that differentiate baking from cooking.

BAK 160: Foundations of Baking and Pastry Arts I (BAKA)
4 Credit Hours

In this laboratory course the student will be exposed to a foundational array of baking methods, procedures and techniques. The student will be introduced to yeast risen dough, quick breads and introductory pastry items. Emphasis will be placed on formula conversion, food cost, scaling and mixing methods. Students will begin preparation of professional baking career portfolio. This course may use alcoholic beverages to flavor production items.

BAK 165: Quantity Baking I
4 Credit Hours

A lecture/laboratory course that introduces the foundations of quantity baking and offers the opportunity for students to produce products to be used for retail sales. Utilizing foundational baking skills from BAK 160, students will learn techniques and theory regarding formula conversion and quantity scaling and production. Prerequisites: BAK 160: Foundations of Baking.

BAK 260: Foundations of Pastry Arts and Baking II
4 Credit Hours

Based on foundational competencies achieved in Foundations of Baking 160 students will build upon learned concepts and be exposed to an advanced array of baking methods, procedures and techniques. The student will be introduced to laminated dough, tarts, pâte à choux mousses, Bavarians, basic dessert sauces. Introduction of dessert plating and presentation as well as advanced cake decoration will also be included. This course may use alcoholic beverages to flavor production items. Prerequisites: BAK 160: Foundations of Baking I.

BAK 265: Quantity Baking II
4 Credit Hours

A lecture/laboratory course that builds upon the foundational quantity baking skills obtained in Introduction to Quantity Baking I and Foundations of Baking I while introducing new products and techniques. Students will prepare artisan style yeasted products, laminated dough and a variety of additional retail and wholesale products. Pre- requisites: BAK 160: Foundations of Baking I and BAK 165: Introduction to Quantity Baking I.

BAK 270: International Baking and Pastry
4 Credit Hours

A lecture/laboratory class that focuses on the preparation of classical pastries and contemporary restaurant desserts.  Students will learn the techniques, methods and procedures used in the production of International style tortes, petits fours sec & glacé, frozen desserts. Strong emphasis will be placed on plating and presentation techniques. Students will explore the factors that have had an affect on the evolution of dessert pastries in a variety of countries. These factors include geography and climate; historical and political events and various cultural and religious influences. Prerequisites: BAK 260: Foundations in Baking II.

BAK 275: Confections and Decorative Work
4 Credit Hours

A lecture/laboratory class that focuses on the preparation of confections and contemporary restaurant desserts.  Students will learn the techniques, methods and procedures used in the production of petits fours sec & glacé, confections, and decorative finishing work, including, but not limited to, chocolate and sugar.  Strong emphasis will be placed on presentation techniques. Prerequisites: BAK 260: Foundations in Baking II.

BAK 280: Retail Practical Experience
6 Credit Hours

This course focuses on the advertising, merchandising and management of a retail bakery and the baked goods produced. Each student will act as General Manager of the bakery operation during rotation through course positions. Students will utilize previously learned formula food costing and be responsible for sales, marketing, inventory and ordering as well as labor cost control techniques regarding retail and wholesale operations. The measurement of customer satisfaction will also be focused upon. Prerequisites: BAK 260: Foundations in Baking II, and BAK 265: Introduction to Quantity Baking II.

BAK 295: Baking Externship
6 Credit Hours As Required

Students will complete a minimum of a semester of bakery industry experience. Students will sign a contractual agreement with an externship site. The following options are available: 1) Competitive participation in one of the externships developed by the College; or 2) Independent externship in the industry secured by the student that meets the approval of the Program Coordinator. Verified work experience of one year prior to enrollment at Paul Smith's may be substituted for either option, providing that experience is comparable and applicable to the student's major (see Externship Verification Process section). Enrollment in either of the two options requires a cumulative GPA of 2.00 or better. Grading is pass/fail based on completion of the contractual agreement with the externship property and adherence to their rules and regulations of employment as well as to Paul Smith's College rules of student conduct.

Business

ACC 101: Financial Accounting
3 Credit Hours

Students utilize the rules of debits/credits in preparing the step-by-step process incorporated in a full accounting cycle. Analysis and preparation of basic financial statements are included. Students will be able to complete an in-depth accounting of certain assets and liabilities. (3 hours lecture).

ACC 102: Managerial Accounting
3 Credit Hours

Study of the principles of financial accounting begun in ACC 101: Financial Accounting is continued, including in-depth studies of cash flows, international accounting practices, and corporate structure. A foundation of managerial accounting is presented, including standard costing, budgeting, profit planning, break-even analysis, and responsibility accounting in decision-making situations. (3 hours lecture). Prerequisite: ACC 101: Financial Accounting.

ACC 301: Small Business Accounting
3 Credit Hours

This course will familiarize students with accounting principles and practices applicable to small business organizations. Various business models will be explored. Students will analyze and maintain financial information using small business accounting software and assess the financial implications of small business decision-making. (3 hours lecture). Prerequisite: Junior Standing and ACC 101: Financial Accounting.

ECN 200: Principles of Economics
3 Credit Hours

Explores the theory of the firm and consumer behavior within a market system. Emphasis is placed on the relationship between market structure and price and output determination. Current economic problems are used to clarify the development and application of economic models. Additionally, the course will cover foundations in macroeconomics, to include an introduction to economic systems, money and banking, monetary and fiscal policy, economic growth, and the theories and measurement of national income, employment and international trade. (3 hours lecture).

ECN 400: The Global Market
3 Credit Hours

Students will develop an understanding of the global nature of all business and how much of our future lies outside the boundaries of the United States. This course will evaluate recent paradigm shifts from isolationism to regionalized and global economics. Additionally, students will reflect on agreements that have forced the issues of the global market into political debate. (3 hours lecture). Prerequisites: ECN 101: Macroeconomics or HOS 300: The Service Economy.

ECN 410: Resource Economics
3 Credit Hours

This course describes several conceptual tools and the conventional analytical framework used to characterize the optimal allocation of natural resources over time. While neo-classical resource economics forms the focus, an important component of the course includes an introduction to the field of ecological economics and the three-fold framework of resource management decisions (biophysical constraints and opportunities, economic feasibility, and institutional acceptability). The goal is to enable students to understand and appreciate the economic component of a sustainable relationship between the natural environment system and the political and economic systems of the global society. (3 hours lecture). Prerequisite: ECN 102: Microeconomics.

FIN 310: Finance
3 Credit Hours

This course presents detailed financial concepts as applied to both corporate and entrepreneurial business environments. The course will cover financial theory and applications using case studies. The course will address those issues of finance that apply to today’s business, such as ratios, liquidity, profitability, financial forecasting, operating and financial leverage, etc. (3 hours lecture). Prerequisite: ACC 101: Financial Accounting

MGT 101: Introduction to Entrepreneurship
3 Credit Hours

A modern small-business course that focuses on the traits and methods of management required of successful owner/operators in today's business environment. Students will explore why some entrepreneurs fail while others succeed repeatedly. Additionally, the students will learn how to assess their chances for success by discovering how to recognize their own strengths and weaknesses. This course is primarily for non-majors, or transfer business students. (3 hours lecture).

MGT 200: Principles of Management
3 Credit Hours

This course is designed to introduce students to the management functions of planning, organizing, leading, and controlling. Management theory is examined from an historical perspective and principles are applied using the systems approach and contingency as related to contemporary management practice. Students focus on industry examples and problem solving. (3 hours lecture)

MGT 201: Business Law
3 Credit Hours

An introductory course designed to develop a basic understanding of the legal aspects of business. The functions and operations of the court system are discussed. Formation of the single proprietorship, partnership, and the corporation types of business are examined. Contracts, their formation, legal effect, and discharge; trust and agency; employer-employee relationships; and government regulation are also discussed. (3 hours lecture)

MGT 210: Entrepreneurship Systems, Resources & Policies
3 Credit Hours

The rapid pace of business for the entrepreneur often means learning procedures, mechanisms, and policies of doing business in real time. Each year requirements change at the local, state, and national level. For an entrepreneur to be successful he/she must stay informed on personnel hiring and retention issues, benefit policies, employee compensation models, insurance needs, credit systems, payment systems, and tax law, among other topics. This course will walk students through the necessary mechanics of the entrepreneur, and additionally provide the tools where students can seek out current and applicable entrepreneurship information as is necessary. Human resources planning is emphasized and job planning, job design, recruitment, selection, hiring, training, evaluation, promotion, compensation systems and termination are discussed. Different types of business required documentation as applied to sole proprietors, partnerships, and corporations will be studied. (3 hours lecture)

MGT 250: Sustainable Practices in Entrepreneurship
3 Credit Hours

This course relates how business can cut costs, reduce risk, increase revenue and create strong branding and business presence by incorporating environmental and social consciousness into their economic practices. This course will cover long-term economic sustainability, recycling, reusing, and limiting waste as management and marketing strategies. It will explain how to compute carbon emissions and the cost that incurs to the business. It will address how savings can be obtained through a change in business operations. Finally, it will explore the affect businesses that practice social consciousness have on communities. (3 hours lecture)

MGT 306: Business Ethics and Decision Making
3 Credit Hours

This course provides an opportunity to participate in a series of business simulations that demonstrate a wide array of business issues and business decision making. The course will also focus on debate of ethical issues in business. Particular emphasis will be given to businesses with entrepreneurial roots. Concepts including ethical reasoning, critical thinking, strategic thinking and professional articulation of personal ideologies will serve as a backdrop for the class. Each class session will be a blend of various learning methods, including: readings, videos, lectures, individual/group experiential exercises, informal debates, etc. The goal is for students to learn not only what is involved in ethical decision making, but also how ethical decision making can be effectively used. (3 hours lecture). Prerequisite: MGT 200: Principles of Management.

MGT 310: Human Resource Management
3 Credit Hours

The study of human resource management as it relates to the contemporary employment environment. Human resources planning is emphasized and job planning, job design, recruitment, selection, hiring, training, evaluation, promotion, compensation systems and termination are discussed. Leadership skills are developed, and motivation theory is examined. The role of labor unions is discussed, and legislative requirements affecting employment practices are examined. (3 hours lecture). Prerequisite: Junior standing.

MGT 320: The Family Enterprise
3 Credit Hours

More than 80% of the businesses in the United States are private entrepreneurships. Although there is a preponderance of "flag" brands throughout this country, the lifeblood of free enterprise is still the family operation. The blend of family values, family systems, and business operations can lead to a very challenging environment for ownership. The course will focus not only on the systems necessary to run a family business, but also on the psychological, human issues that inevitably arise. (3 hours lecture). Prerequisite: Junior standing.

MGT 325: Franchising
3 Credit Hours

Franchising provides many with an opportunity to reach the "American Dream" of becoming an entrepreneur. Tying in with a "flag" operation allows private entrepreneurs to take advantage of the experience and image that a brand brings to the table. For the small firm with multiple outlets, the opportunity to continue expansion and gain substantial market share through franchising a concept is quite enticing. This course offers students an opportunity to become familiar with the systems, legal issues, financing opportunities, and strategies for promotion that exist in the U.S. for franchise concepts. (3 hours lecture). Prerequisite: Junior standing.

MGT 335: Project Management
3 Credit Hours

This course addresses project management of diverse activities. The course offers a practical approach to managing projects, focusing on organizing, planning, and controlling the efforts of the project such as budgeting, time management, staffing and resource management. The course will focus on aligning project goals and strategies with organizational strategic objectives and culture. Students will establish and evaluate measures of success, quantify value commensurate with costs, optimize the use of organizational resources, and consider risk management. (3 hours lecture). Prerequisite: MGT 200: Principles of Management or PSY 110: Organizational Psychology.

MGT 360: Applications in Entrepreneurship
3 Credit Hours

This practice-based experience course is designed to provide practical application of the entrepreneurial knowledge gained during the student's first two years of study in Business Management and Entrepreneurship Studies. Students will write a business plan for a business, product or service, and realize it during the semester. Prerequisite: ACC 101: Financial Accounting.

MGT 400: Strategic Planning & Policy
3 Credit Hours

An inter-disciplinary senior seminar emphasizing the analysis of complex business problems in domestic and global settings. Using a strategic management framework, this course integrates core business knowledge across all functional and decision-support areas to arrive at economically-sound, ethically-principled, value-adding solutions. This case-based seminar will focus on issues of venture capital and other forms of capitalization and enterprise growth; initial public offerings (IPO’s); small business management problems and entrepreneurial strategy. (3 hours lecture). Prerequisites: ACC 101: Financial Accounting and MGT 200: Principles of Management.

MGT 490: Entrepreneurship Capstone
3 Credit Hours

Through this culminating experience, students will have the opportunity to demonstrate the critical thinking and synthesis skills necessary to integrate college educational goals with business related learning objectives. Building on the process developed in Applications in Entrepreneurship, students will have the opportunity to execute independently a research-based and/or practitioner focused project. For a given situation in a community, students will analyze the environmental and demographic factors, develop a needs assessment, and make recommendations for an action plan to address a specific problem, issue, or concern. Prerequisite: Senior standing and MGT 360 Application in Entrepreneurship or SOC 220 Social Research

MGT 499: Special Topics in Management
3 Credit Hours

Theories of management evolve at an exponential rate. Dealing with the management of people, inside and outside an organization, is complex due to the nature of human behaviors. Organizational structures change as the definition of these organizations mutate in response to economic conditions and the needs of those stakeholders who make the organization breathe. As new approaches rise to the surface, this free-form course will allow members of the faculty to research and present new concepts in management and leadership. ( 3 hours lecture). Prerequisite: Junior standing or permission of the Dean of the Division.

MIS 410: Management Information Systems
3 Credit Hours

This course engages students in the application of management information systems strategies. Students synthesize data and analyze common MIS problems and develop solutions to address them. Common issues associated with managing different components of an information system in an organization are explored in depth with students applying business management, finance and marketing theory to information systems issues. (3 hours lecture).

MKT 200: Principles of Marketing
3 Credit Hours

Students are introduced to the functions of a marketing system to gain a better understanding of the consumer and industrial market place. Creating in design work that illustrates persuasion, emotional allurement, and ability to attract sales is taught. Different strategies necessary to market a product or service are discussed from scientific and practical viewpoints. Topics discussed include product planning and development, quality, pricing promotions, and channels of distribution. (3 hours lecture). SC-R, RE-R.

MKT 305: Advertising and Promotion
3 Credit Hours

Students will learn to evaluate advertising as an institution in society and investigate advertising, both as a tool of marketing and as a process of mass communication. Topics such as marketing research, media selection, budget allocation, publicity, and personal selling efforts will be discussed. Through various assigned projects, students will design and produce advertisements in a variety of mediums. (3 hours lecture). Prerequisite: MKT 200: Principles of Marketing.

MKT 310: Retailing
3 Credit Hours

Consumers still drive the U.S. economy. Retailing today is at an interesting crossroads. As consumers spend ever more of their disposable income, the industry that exchanges that tender for goods is faced with unique opportunities. Franchising, niche marketing, aggressive point-of-sale merchandising, the use of the Internet, and competitive pricing strategies combine to make the exchange of goods for money a complex science. This course will prepare students for entrance into the dynamic, fascinating, psychologically - driven, fast-paced and ever-changing retail business sector. (3 hours lecture). Prerequisite: MKT 200: Principles of Marketing.

PRK 340: Facilities Management
3 Credit Hours

In an era of unprecedented expansion, park and recreation facilities management is a multi-disciplinary field that has developed as facilities have increased tremendously in both number and variety. Facility management is critical in keeping any organization operating smoothly and efficiently. Professionals find themselves responsible for a variety of recreation facilities varying in type, scope, size, budget and condition with vastly different goals and expectations according to setting and location. this course brings together a variety of information, knowledge, and techniques for managing these facilities. Students will analyze and synthesize the practical application of facility management applicable to a variety of areas and facilities. (2 hours lecture, 4 hours lab). Prerequisite: REC 105: Recreation and Leisure in the United States and one (1) reinforcing level general education experience.

PRK 355: Visitor Management Services
3 Credit Hours

The basic purpose of parks is to serve people. Several basic questions that must be answered are: Who are the visitors? Where do they come from? In what activities do they participate? How long do they stay? This course first seeks to answer these types of questions by looking at user-group characteristics and participant profiles. The latter part of the course is then devoted to visitor management techniques. (3 hours lecture). Prerequisite: REC 101: Introduction to Recreation.

PRK 360: Diversity and Inclusion by Design
3 Credit Hours

Inclusion values the participation of all persons in programs and facilities. Students will consider the effects of privilege, discrimination, and prejudice on the lives of people and how these factors affect services. This course assumes all people deserve respect and to be treated as full members of their communities, thereby sharing an overall quality of life. Students are encouraged to appreciate and celebrate differences in their personal lives and those of others. In this course, students will develop the skills and knowledge they need to incorporate the principles of inclusion. Prerequisites: WC-R, SC-R, RE-R.

Culinary Arts

CUL 101: Professional Cooking Fundamentals I
4 Credit Hours

This foundational course provides the student with an introduction to foundational professional cooking. It includes study of the basic tenets of kitchen safety, sanitation and food service mathematics. The primary focus is the theory and skill development of knife handling, preparation of stocks, soups and sauces and primary cooking methods. Also covered is product identification, use of herbs, spices and seasonings as well as fundamental fabrication techniques.

CUL 102: Professional Cooking Fundamentals II
4 Credit Hours

This is a continuation of Professional Cooking Foundational I. The course provides the students with the opportunity to strengthen the skill development and application of cooking techniques as introduced in that course through application in breakfast cookery, grains, potato and vegetable cookery. Prerequisite: CUL 101: Professional Cooking Fundamentals I.

CUL 140: Maple Sweet & Savory: Maple Uses in Culinary, Baking, and Confection
1 Credit Hour

This lab course will provide an opportunity for students to identify and understand the different uses of maple in both sweet and savory applications.  Emphasis will be placed on using maple as a sugar in the development of flavors  in savory food items such as soups, sauces, marinades and glazes.  Additional emphasis will be placed on understanding maple as an inverted sugar and the applications in which it might be used.  Specific sweet utilization areas will cover cookies, quick breads, fruits and pies, pastries and confections. Typically offered in summer.

CUL 150: International Cuisine
4 Credit Hours

As an exploration and examination of global cuisines this course is intended to build upon the students culinary repertoire while expanding students understanding and appreciation of others cultures. Students will explore the factors that have had an affect on the evolution of foods in a variety of countries. These factors include geography and climate; historical and political events and various cultural and religious influences. Prerequisites: CUL 102: Professional Cooking Fundamentals II.

CUL 220: Contemporary Cuisine
4 Credit Hours

This Lecture/Lab course provides an opportunity to synthesize the various techniques that students have learned to date in the program to create various preparations with contemporary applications. Emphasis will be placed on presentation and the introduction of modern plating techniques. Additionally, with the growing awareness that diet plays an important role in physical health, foods prepared will incorporate a lighter and more nutritionally sound approach. Submission of Industry Work Experience portfolio is a requirement of this course. Prerequisite(s): CUL 150: International Cuisine. Co-requisite: CUL 280: Nutrition/Food Science

CUL 230: Food Service Operations Management
3 Credit Hours Fall/Spring/Summer

This course is designed to introduce the student to the relationship between menu development and the financial impact on food service operations. This course walks the student through the development cycle, beginning with the market research process to support functions of purchasing and receiving, storing and requisitions of food and beverage to produce menu items. Students become familiar with management practices related to food service operations such as costing recipes, setting appropriate selling prices based on fixed and variable costs and forecasting to determine food and labor needs. This course also addresses the ongoing processes necessary for maintaining overall profitability including the development of a budget, the analysis of financial reports, and the identification of areas requiring corrective action.

CUL 240 Garde Manger & Charcuterie
4 Credit Hours

A lecture/ lab that focuses on the methods and theories related to cold food preparation, hors d’eourves, display platters, charcuterie, smoking meats, butchering, seafood and preparing centerpieces from edible food stuffs. Production methods and safe food handling are emphasized. Prerequisite(s): CUL 150: International Cuisine.

CUL 250: Advanced Cooking Techniques
4 Credit Hours

A course designed to encompass three primary areas of cooking: Garde Manger, Advanced Cooking and Nutrition. Students will become familiar with preparations including, but not limited to, canapés, hors d' oeuvres, complex salads, relishes, dressings and marinades, cold buffet platters, galantines and pâtés and hot food preparations and plate presentations that are aligned with contemporary restaurant concepts. Nutritional preparations of foods and alternative methods designed to retain natural vitamin and mineral contents of food, as well as preparations for an ever-increasing population of consumers interested in low-fat, low-sodium, low-carbohydrate foods and food preparations will be stressed. Prerequisites: CUL 101: Professional Cooking Fundamentals I and CUL 102: Professional Cooking Fundamentals II.

CUL 260: Commercial Cooking and Catering
6 Credit Hours Fall/Spring/Sum Sems.

A practical experience that allows students the opportunity to apply skills learned in fundamental laboratory classes in an actual restaurant setting by operating an a la carte restaurant. Students will prepare breakfast, lunch and dinner four days per week in the St. Regis Café. A weekly student buffet will allow students to experience buffet preparation. Students will rotate through all positions required to operate facility. Prerequisites: CUL 101: Professional Cooking Fundamentals I, CUL 102: Professional Cooking Fundamentals II, CUL 150: International Cuisine, BAK 150: Foundations of Baking or the Dean of the Division.

CUL 280: Nutrition/Food Science
3 Credit Hours

This course focuses on the functions that carbohydrates, fats, protein, water, vitamins, and minerals have in the body. The course will include measurement of nutritional status and labels as well as the application of dietary guidelines and recommendations. The student will study human nutritional requirements throughout the life cycle.

CUL 295: Culinary Externship
6 Credit Hours Fall/Spring/Sum Sems.

Students spend a semester or more of food preparation work at a hotel, restaurant, resort, or contract food service operation. Students will sign a contractual agreement with an externship site. The following options are available: 1) Competitive participation in one of the externships developed by the College; or 2) Independent externship in the industry secured by the student that meets the approval of the Dean. Verifiable full-time, work experience of one year or more in the culinary industry, prior to enrollment at Paul Smith's, may be substituted for either option one or two. (See Externship Verification Process section). Enrollment in either of the two options requires a cumulative GPA of 2.00 or better. Grading is Pass/Fail based on completion of the contractual agreement with the externship property and adherence to their rules and regulations of employment as well as to Paul Smith's College rules of student conduct. Prerequisite: One full semester of course work in the Culinary Arts program.

CUL 299: Special Topics in Culinary Arts
3 Credit Hours

This course will provide students with an opportunity to study culinary arts topics which are not normally offered. These courses are selected for their potential to contribute both to the professional and intellectual development of students. In most cases, student demand or faculty expertise (or both) are factors which influence the selection and timing of these courses.

CUL 320: American Gastronomy
3 Credit Hours

American Gastronomy traces the evolution of American eating habits. The course will research the influence of original native cultures, US geography, regional natural resources, immigrant culture/cuisine and specific historical and cultural events on the kinds of foods Americans eat today. Through this experience students will be able to recognize the cultural influences in a typical modern American meal. A study in family genealogy will be introduced to discuss the makeup of the student’s family culinary background and gain a greater appreciation of the individual student’s own cultural heritage. Prerequisites: CUL 220: Contemporary Cuisine and CUL 240: Garde Manger.

CUL 341: Culinary Futures/Food Techniques
4 Credit Hours

A lecture/lab course which will explore current and future trends in restaurant menus, as well as dealing with an understanding of how science and technology are changing the way society and our industry cooks, operates and lives. Through lectures, demonstrations, and hands-on applications, this course will cover a wide and varied array of topics and trends as they evolve and shift in a dynamic industry. Students will be exposed to the methods that chemists and technologists use to present products for market using high-tech emulsifiers, fat substitutes, flavor enhancers, irradiation technology, sous-vide (vacuum cooking) and genetic engineering. Prerequisites: CUL 150 International Cuisine and CUL 220 Contemporary Cuisine.

CUL 380: Advanced Kitchen and Menu Management
4 Credit Hours

A comprehensive lecture/laboratory class that requires students to understand and implement all of the aspects of managing a modern restaurant that serves contemporary cuisine. Students will be required to rotate through all positions required to operate this restaurant with emphasis on student’s rotation as Executive chef. In this position student will conduct menu research, create menu, order food supplies, develop budgetary proposal, and assign duties pertaining to food production and front of house service. At the completion of executive chef rotation student will prepare a portfolio to document this work as well as standardized recipe development and signature dish design. Prerequisites: CUL 150: International Cuisine, CUL 220: Contemporary Cuisine, BAK 150: Foundations of Baking.

CUL 461: Culinary Research and Planning Seminar
3 Credit Hours

The Culinary capstone course series gives students the opportunity to demonstrate that they have obtained the goals of the program. This course addresses the goal that to contribute to the food industry, culinarians must be able to explore new concepts, trends, and methods that hold the potential to enrich the dining experience. In this first course, students will research a dining experience concept. The student will develop a literature review that will include a rationale for studying that concept, a public sector interested in the concept, and an overview of the appropriate research methodology needed to address a specific research question. The resulting Capstone Project plan will then be implemented in the second course of this series: Capstone Kitchen and Menu Management. Prerequisites: CUL 320: Gastronomy and CUL 260: Commercial Cooking and Catering.

CUL 462: Capstone Kitchen and Menu Management
3 Credit Hours

This course is the second in a series of culminating courses designed to give students the opportunity to demonstrate that they have obtained the goals of the program. This final course will ask students to demonstrate their culinary techniques, aesthetic appreciation, research, management, and leadership abilities. Students will design and execute all of the aspects of managing a conceptual restaurant. Students will be required to rotate through all positions required to operate this restaurant. During their Executive Chef rotation students will create a menu, order food supplies, develop a budgetary proposal, and assign duties pertaining to food production and front of house service. Students will also implement the research design developed in their Research and Planning Seminar. At the completion of the Executive Chef rotation students will prepare and defend a portfolio which will include a complete research report. In combination with CUL 461, this course satisfies the Capstone/Culminating experience requirement. Prerequisite: CUL 461: Culinary Research and Planning Seminar or SOC 460: Capstone Research Methods.

CUL 499: Special Topics in Culinary Arts
3 Credit Hours

Culinary Arts have become legitimate areas of study that encompass not only technical skills, but also an understanding of history, anthropology, geography, agriculture, customs and language. This special topics course will provide an opportunity for faculty, with unique backgrounds in academic and technical areas of culinary arts, to offer instruction. Sample topics might include: artisan bread baking, chocolate centerpieces, sugar work, ice carving techniques, historical influences of foods on various cultures, the impact of ethnic backgrounds on cuisine, etc. Prerequisite: Junior standing or permission of the Dean of the Division.

Environmental Studies

EST 101: Intro to Environmental Studies
3 Credit Hours

This course includes lecture, discussion, and experiential components, which provide students an introduction to the field of environmental studies, both generally and specifically, at Paul Smith's College. Students examine a variety of issues in the Adirondack region in an interdisciplinary manner and become acquainted with the complex, multi-dimensional nature of environmental problems and solutions. Various faculty involved in the Environmental Studies Program are involved with this course as guest speakers, leaders of field trips, etc., so that students have an opportunity to meet the members of the PSC ENST Program. (3 hours lecture).

EST 200: Nature and Culture
4 Credit Hours

This course introduces students to major aspects of the interaction between human beings and the environment. Focus is on the historical and cultural connections between people and the environment. Human conceptions about the nature of nature, the wilderness, conservation, parks, recreation, etc. are discussed along with the shaping roles of religion, philosophy, art, literature, pop culture, and politics. Among the diverse topics covered are urban and rural ecologies; communication and sense of place; gender, ethnicity, and class; the arts and artists; indigenous cultures; ethics, law, and the education system; the impact of media in popular culture; agriculture, business and tourism.

EST 210: Comparative Environmental Studies Practicum
3 Credit Hours

This course consists of a two-week long trip to a location in the US or abroad where students will have an opportunity to directly experience and examine environmental issues that are significantly different from those of the Adirondack region. Interdisciplinary and comparative perspectives on environmental issues are emphasized. This course is conducted entirely off campus and entails additional fees above tuition.

EST 220: Introduction to Permaculture
4 Credit Hours

Permaculture is defined as the conscious design of human systems, both natural and social, that have the diversity, stability, & resilience of natural ecosystems. Permaculture is a powerful and internationally-recognized form of design science that has become increasingly important since its emergence in Australia about 30 years ago. Working with nature, permaculture provides a well-established route to create human environments that mimic the sustainable, resilient, and energy-efficient natural environments we see all around us. Permaculture is concerned with the study and practice of the way human beings – as individuals and societies – can participate in the creation of ethical and ecological support systems. Incorporating traditional knowledge, modern science, and natural patterns of the living world, permaculture design is applicable to farms, gardens, neighborhoods, and towns in both rural and urban settings. (3 hours lecture, 2 hours lab).

EST 300: Ecological Change and Society
3 Credit Hours

This course translates, applies and interprets critical concepts from global change science so that the non-scientific community might become better informed in the policy decision- making arena. Students will examine the natural and anthropogenic changes taking place in the totality of the earth’s environment across spatial and temporal scales. Students will deepen their understandings of interrelationships and connections between biogeochemical processes in various parts of the earth system, and discuss change mechanisms, tipping points and possible mitigation and adaptation solutions to the tremendous challenges posed by anthropogenic climate change. The course will examine long-term records of global change, as well as focusing on near-past human societies that have successfully or unsuccessfully adapted to changing environmental conditions. We will assess global change models for implications regarding vulnerability of human society and non-human ecosystems to potential change and for insight into strategies for future sustainability

EST 310: Environmental History & Social Justice
3 Credit Hours

This course looks at the historical, cultural and ecological basis for our changing concepts of the environment. The course provides an overview of US environmental history in an effort to understand the interactions, interdependencies and changes implicit in the relationship between human culture and the environment. American history is characterized by the paradox of the bounty of the continent’s vast natural resources and subsequent establishment of natural institutions, such as our National Park System, and the sweeping and often catastrophic ecological changes wrought on the landscape by the process of Manifest Destiny and industrialization. Environmental history combines political, social, ecological, artistic and literary forms to clarify how our culture’s concept of the environment has changed over time.

EST 320: Global Environmental Studies Seminar
3 Credit Hours

Environmental Studies majors take this course during their junior year. It takes a top-down look at global environmental issues, and thus it complements the bottom-up, Adirondack-based perspective of Introduction to Environmental Studies. Interdisciplinary approaches to the study and management of environmental issues are emphasized. As a seminar, this course puts a great emphasis on student participation and initiative. Prerequisites: EST 101: Introduction to Environmental Studies or POL 202: Politics of the Environment.

EST 400: Environmental Studies Research Seminar
4 Credit Hours

The Environmental Studies Research Seminar is a culminating endeavor based upon students' course work, reading, interests and experience. Students in the seminar undertake a faculty-selected and directed research project. Students will work in small groups, and individually within their group, toward the completion of the overall class goal. Students are required to prepare a substantial written report demonstrating the students' project focus, as well as the integration of their work, and an oral presentation for their group. Prerequisite: EST 320: Global Environmental Studies Seminar.

First Year Seminar

FYS: First Year Seminar
3 Credit Course

First Year Seminar is an interdisciplinary discussion based course designed to explore questions of meaning, value, and responsibility encountered by individuals and communities. Each section of the course takes on a different theme that allows individuals to develop the analytical ability needed to confront and explore different perspectives related to that theme. Each section of the course seeks to engage students in the process of imagination and expression, personal and social responsibility, sustainability and analysis of the different perspectives that shape our community interdependence. Through reflective activities, readings, communication skills, respect for diverse opinions, and action plans that will guide the independent, confident, decision making. LAS, H-F, RE-F

Fisheries and Wildlife Sciences

FWS 101: Introduction to Fisheries and Wildlife Management
4 Credit Hours

This course will serve as a primer to students in the Fisheries and Wildlife Sciences Program. Its purpose is to create the awareness that management of fisheries and wildlife resources is firmly steeped in the biological sciences. The basic science behind managing populations of birds, mammals, and fish will be explored (data collection, analyses, presentation). Furthermore, the student will be exposed to reality of the roles that communication, human dimensions, and policy play in fisheries and wildlife management. (2 hours lecture, 3 hours lab).

FWS 105: Introduction to Wildlife Management 3 Credit Hours

This course provides an introduction to the principles involved in the maintenance of sustainable wildlife populations. The focus of the course is in two major areas: (1) the ecological and biological principles underlying wildlife conservation, such as habitat, population dynamics, and animal behavior, and (2) the role of humans in wildlife conservation, including both the effects of wildlife exploitation and the effects of various restoration and management practices. The major emphasis of the course is on, but not completely limited to, terrestrial vertebrate animals. (3 hours lecture).

FWS 210: Conservation Law Enforcement
3 Credit Hours

Conservation law enforcement is intended for students seeking careers as conservation officers. The course will cover theory and techniques of conservation law enforcement.  This is accomplished through an introduction to criminal justice, law enforcement issues and techniques, the history of conservation law enforcement, current N. American and New York environmental laws, and wildlife forensics.  As communication skills are integral to conservation officers, students will be required to demonstrate written and verbal communication skills.  Students will also be required to successfully complete or show proof of prior completion of a state approved hunter’s education class to pass the course.  RE-R, SC-R.

FWS 270: Natural History of North American Vertebrates
3 Credit Hours

This course introduces students to the biodiversity and natural history of vertebrates that live in North America. The focus will be on fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals with an emphasis on vertebrates that live in the eastern United States. Students will be able to identify vertebrates as well as demonstrate an understanding of vertebrate anatomy, physiology, behavior, reproduction, life history and ecology. (3 hours lecture). Prerequisites: BIO 101: Biology I and BIO 102: Biology II.

FWS 320: Techniques in Wildlife Management
4 Credit Hours

The course requires students to estimate population demographics, calculate home range sizes, and perform other quantitative analysis for wildlife management, including but not limited to game and endangered species. Students will develop skills in capturing and handling wildlife as well as aging, sexing, and marking individuals. While the primary focus of the course is on mammals and birds, some attention will be given to amphibians and reptiles. (2 hours lecture, 3 hours lab). Prerequisites: BIO 101: Biology I and MAT 210: Statistics. WC-I, QP-I, AR-I. RE-I.

FWS 331: Fisheries Techniques
3 Credit Hours

This course introduces the student to the wide array of tools to assess and monitor fish populations, communities, and habitat. Students will gain experience using passive and active fish sampling gear, and learn basic approaches to assessing physical habitat and water quality. Standardized sampling as a basis for collecting scientifically-sound data and as a means to gather reliable data for long-term monitoring will be emphasized. Students will be introduced to statistical methods used to quantify population size, age and growth, recruitment and year-class strength, and mortality. Advanced topics will include diet analysis, linear growth modeling, bioenergetics modeling, and biotelemetry. In addition, students will explore methods used by the profession to gather information on human users of fisheries resources, which will include development and use creel surveys. Computer use will be a strong component in this course. (2 hours lecture, 3 hours lab). Prerequisites: BIO 101: Biology I or BIO 102: Biology II or FWS 101: Introduction to Fisheries & Wildlife Management.

FWS 380: Fisheries Management
3 Credit Hours

This course provides a basic understanding of fisheries management principles. Emphasis in lecture is placed on the theory, principles and practices of fisheries science and management of streams, ponds and lakes. The course will cover fisheries assessments, population estimation techniques, age and growth studies, watershed evaluation, stream and lake improvement, fish life history features, and fish stocking and propagation. New York State Department of Environmental Conservation practices of fisheries administration and management in the Adirondacks an Federal Fish and Wildlife Services management of the Lake Champlain Basin will also be explored. (3 hours lecture). Prerequisites: BIO 101: Biology I or BIO 102: Biology II or FWS 101: Introduction to Fisheries & Wildlife Management.

FWS 395: Wildlife and Fisheries Externship
3 Credit Hours

The student obtains fisheries or wildlife research or management experience with an organization such as a governmental agency or private conservation/environmental group. A sponsoring supervisor in the organization provides a written work plan of the student’s activities before the externship begins. The student identifies a faculty mentor at PSC to approve the work plan. The student must secure approval from his/her mentor and advisor prior to registering for the externship. During the externship the student keeps a log. Upon completion of the externship, the student submits a written report and an oral presentation. The student’s supervisor suggests a grade to the faculty mentor who assigns a final pass/fail grade. See the Fisheries and Wildlife Externship Approval Form for more information. Credit hours will be determined based on the breadth and depth of the work experience (3 hours lecture). Prerequisites: BIO 101: Biology I or BIO 102: Biology II and GPA of 2.0 or greater.

FWS 470: Wildlife Management
4 Credit Hours

This advanced course prepares students to manage wildlife as natural resource by requiring students to apply their knowledge about wildlife biology, issues, and management in order to develop wildlife management plans. Creation of the management plan finalizes the Fisheries and Wildlife Science program by demonstrating mastery of both general education and program goals. Much of the course is based on historical and current case studies on the effects of food, habitat, predation, and diseases on wildlife populations. Students evaluate management policies and protocols including sociocultural and economic impacts. (3 hours lecture). Prerequisites: FWS 320: Wildlife Techniques AND Senior status AND (BIO 363: Mammology OR BIO 364: Ornithology OR BIO 366: Herpetology). This course satisfies the Capstone requirement.

FWS 480: Fisheries Biology and Management
3 Credit Hours

Fisheries management is based on the use of scientific information, communication skills, and an understanding of human dimensions to manipulate aquatic populations, aquatic habitats, and humans to sustain or increase the benefits of fishery resources. In this class, students will become intimate with an understanding of the science foundation beneath fisheries management that can help humans make informed decisions. Students will 1) study the scientific approaches used to assess fish population and community dynamics, 2) review the components and managing limiting factors, and 3) learn the historic and contemporary roles of humans in traditional and emerging management approaches in fisheries protection, maintenance, and restoration. Class discussion of case histories will provide focal points for developing an understanding of the complexity of fisheries management. (3 hours lecture). Prerequisites: BIO 101: Biology I or BIO 102: Biology II and BIO 210: General Ecology.

Forestry

FOR 101: Introduction to Forestry
4 Credit Hours

A lecture and laboratory course which gives students a broad survey of forestry history, federal, state and private forest management, timber harvesting practices, outdoor recreation, wildlife, silviculture, mensuration, and aspects of the forest products industry. The laboratory is designed to get students into the woods and introduce the use of hand tools, saws, mechanized equipment and safe woodworking practices. The course covers procedures for measuring trees, wildlife habitat improvement, scaling, and running a compass line. (3 hours lecture, 3 hours lab). Typically offered in fall and spring.

FOR 110: Dendrology
3 Credit Hours

The identification, taxonomy, ecology, geographic ranges and uses of trees of North America with emphasis on the commercially-important species. Field trips survey native Adirondack trees, shrubs, and some introduced ornamentals. (2 hours lecture, 3 hours lab). Typically offered in fall and spring

FOR 120: Insects and Diseases of Trees
3 Credit Hours

This course presents the basic terminology and principles pertaining to the study of entomology and tree pathology. The taxonomy and morphology of insects will be covered, along with the categories and characteristics of diseases that affect trees. The students will learn to identify common insects and diseases of trees. Various control strategies will be presented with an emphasis on environmentally-sound methods. (2 hours lecture, 2½ hours lab). Typically offered in fall.

FOR 130: Landscape Fundamentals and Interpretation
2 Credit Hours

This course is intended to give the students an understanding and appreciation of landscape design fundamentals. Students will learn how to evaluate a site and construct a design to meet the needs of the site and property users. The foundations of proper landscape installation will also be reviewed. (2 hours lecture). Typically offered in spring.

FOR 140: Arboriculture I
3 Credit Hours

The first of a two-course sequence concerning the discussion and practical training laboratory application of the skills needed to practice arboriculture. Material covered will include tree physiology, tree surgery, tree removal methods, fertilization, and general maintenance practices of shade and ornamental trees. (2 hours lecture, 6 hours lab) Prerequisite: FOR 120: Insects and Diseases of Trees. Typically offered in spring,

FOR 150: Wood Properties and Production Processes
3 Credit Hours

This course presents the physiology, structure, manufacture and identification of wood. This is accomplished through lectures, weekly labs, guest lectures, and hands-on experience with wood samples and processing. (2 hours lecture, 3 hours lab). Typically offered in spring.

FOR 200: Forest Mapping
2 Credit Hours

This course will cover the basics of interpreting, using and creating maps for a variety of forestry, recreation and natural resource applications. After being introduced to basic map reading skills, such as the use of scales, understanding map symbols and interpreting topographic contours, students will learn how to make basic field sketch maps by hand and progress to using and creating maps with computer software including both Computer- Aided Design and Drafting (CADD) and Geographic Information Systems (GIS). While much of the work will be done at drafting tables and computers, field components will include the use of compasses and maps for navigating in the forest, drawing of field sketch maps, and an introduction to the use of Global Positioning Systems (GPS) in the field. (1 hour lecture, 2 hours lab).

FOR 206: Forest Production Processes
4 Credit Hours

This course is designed to develop knowledge of and experience in safe and efficient practices related to forest production processes. In addition, students will study the interrelationships between timber and lumber production, including log bucking, scaling and grading, lumber manufacturing and grading, and lumber and grade recovery. The emphasis is on understanding systems related to forest production processes, from harvesting to lumber manufacturing and drying. (Two (2) 40 hour weeks). Prerequisites: MAT 125: College Algebra; FOR 110: Dendrology, FOR 101: Introduction to Forestry. Typically offered in summer.

FOR 210: Equipment: Small Engines Repair
2 Credit Hours

This course is designed to train forestry students in the operating principles and maintenance of 2-stroke and 4-stroke cycle single cylinder gasoline engines. Lectures, videos, and discussions center on the disassembly, assembly and operating principles of small engines. Students learn the importance of lubricating oils and the application of scheduled maintenance to promote long engine life. (4 hours lab). Typically offered in fall.

FOR 225: Greenhouse-Turf Practice
3 Credit Hours

The course covers various phases of greenhouse management including the construction and function of a greenhouse. Students will learn how to propagate annuals and woody plants from seeds and cuttings. The turf study portion of the course is intended to provide the students with a working knowledge of how to install and maintain various types of turf grass. (2 hours lecture, 2 hours lab). Prerequisite: Enrollment in Aboriculture and Land Management Program, or permission of the instructor. Typically offered in spring.

FOR 231: Forest Health
3 Credit Hours

This course examines the major factors that can affect the health of forest ecosystems. Majors topics will include forest insect pests, diseases, and the impact of fire on forest communities. The concept of "forest health" will be discussed and the important concepts of forest ecology that relate to forest health will be covered. (3 hour lecture). Typically offered in fall.

FOR 235: Timber Harvesting
4 Credit Hours

This course combines class lectures, guest lectures, field trips, and field experience focusing on timber harvesting. Students will gain experience in the diverse elements and aspects of forest harvesting. the course is taught from the perspective of what a forester should know about harvesting which includes logging safety, timeber harvesting operations and sale administration, legal dimensions of harvesting, planning and maintaining forest access systems, timeber procurement and appraisal, logging costs and analysis and environmental and social influences. Field experiences will emphasize logging technigues. Depending on scheduling, students may have the opportunity to obtain harvesting-related certifications for which additional student fees are required.

Prerequisites: FOR 101: Introduction to Forestry, FOR 206: Forest Production Process, FOR 240: Forest Mensuration I, SRV 201: Field Surveying and Game of Logging Level 1 certification. Beginning with the Fall 2011 semester, this course no longer satisfies any general education requirements. Typically offered in fall.

FOR 240: Forest Mensuration I
2 Credit Hours Summer Sess.

FOR 240 is an introductory course in forest measurements. Specific subject areas include the use of forest mensuration instruments, standard forest mensuration practices, and basic design of forest inventory systems. The approach to teaching will integrate classroom discussions, field demonstrations and practice, and guidance on student field and data analysis projects. (two (2) 40 hour weeks). Prerequisites: FOR 110: Dendrology and FOR 101: Introduction to Forestry.. (Two 40-hour weeks). Prerequisite: FOR 110: Dendrology and FOR 101: Introduction to Forestry. Typically offered in summer.

FOR 241: Forest Mensuration II
4 Credit Hours

FOR 241 is an advanced treatment of forest measurements that assumes a student's prior exposure to an introductory course in forest measurements. Specific subject areas include cull estimation; local volume table construction using simple linear regression; site quality evaluation; tree growth and stem analysis; stand growth; growth and yield and the use of multiple regression estimation; timber trespass estimation; probability proportional to size and probability proportional to prediction forest sampling; and forest inventory planning, execution, and analysis. The approach to teaching will integrate classroom discussions, field demonstrations and practice, and guidance on student field and data analysis projects. (2 hours lecture, 5 hours lab). Prerequisite: FOR 240: Forest Mensuration I and GIS 201 Introduction to GIS or GIS 230 Geospatial Information Technology for Forestry. Typically offered in fall.

FOR 250: Arboriculture II
3 Credit Hours

This is the second course of a two-course sequence concerned with the care and maintenance of trees. Topics covered will include tree physiology, plant selection, planting site modification, planting guidelines, construction damage to trees, and pest management. The lab sessions will provide the opportunity to apply tree maintenance practices and explore specialized areas of arboriculture, such as hazard tree management and lightning protection of trees. (2 hours lecture, 3 hours lab). Prerequisite: FOR 140: Arboriculture I. Typically offered in fall.

FOR 260: Silviculture
3 Credit Hours

This course provides a detailed introduction to different silvicultural systems and practices, with an emphasis on the underlying ecological basis of silviculture and systems in the United States, particularly the Northeast, using the College's surroundings as a "laboratory". (2 hours lecture, 3 hours lab). Prerequisites: FOR 241: Forest Mensuration II. Typically offered in spring.

FOR 270: Draft Horse Management
3 Credit Hours

This course introduces the student to the care, management, and use of draft horses in a variety of work situations. Lectures focus on care, maintenance, anatomy, and facility requirements for optimum management. Laboratories will concentrate on handling, harnessing, and driving horses in a variety of applications (i.e., one-horse, two-horse team, log skidding, wagon driving.) (2 hours lecture, 3 hours lab). Typically offered in fall and spring.

FOR 276: Ornamental Dendrology
3 Credit Hours

This course provides the opportunity to study woody plants that are used for ornamental purposes. Students will be required to identify and name the plants on the study list. Information pertaining to the uses of the plants, site requirements, and pest problems will also be covered. The teaching format will include the use of references, slide presentations and field trips. (1 hour lecture, 3 hours lab). Corequisite: FOR 140: Arboriculture 1.

FOR 275: Maple Sap and Syrup Production
3 Credit Hours

This course is designed to teach students the many dimensions of successful operation and management of a sugar bush. The skills learned from this course will range from managing sugar maples for sap production to marketing maple syrup. The College's Sugar Bush will be the classroom for this course and provide students with the hands-on experience. The student may be asked to demonstrate his or her knowledge by conducting tours for the public. (2 hours lecture, 3 hours lab). Typically offered in spring.

FOR 280: Woodlot Management
3 Credit Hours

This course focuses on applied forest ecology in the context of landowner goals and objectives at the woodlot level. Students will be expected to develop management strategies which consider both market and non market products. Application of these concepts will be further reinforced through the development of a woodlot management plan. (2 hour lecture, 3 hour lab). Prerequisites: FOR 101: Intro to Forestry and FOR 110: Dendrology. Typically offered in spring.

FOR 285: Urban Forestry Issues
2 Credit Hours

This course explores the components of the urban forest and the social benefits of urban green space. These components include planning and management of street tree populations, basic inventory methods and job cost estimation. The goal is for students to gain an appreciation for the intricacies of running a tree care business, therefore insurance and tax issues will be studied, along with the importance of maintaining a professional image, work place relations including personnel management, conflict resolution, harassment, and drug use in the work place. (2 hours lecture). Prerequisite: FOR 140: Aboriculture.

FOR 295: Arboriculture & Landscape Management Externship
3 Credit Hours

This is a first-job experience in the "green" industry. The student is required to complete a minimum of 400 hours in a position approved by the Program Coordinator. Students are informed of various job opportunities through the Career Services Office or the Program Coordinator. A student may opt to independently select a job experience upon approval of the Program Coordinator. Prerequisite: FOR 140 Arboriculture I. Typically offered in summer.

FOR 305: Developing a Profitable Sugaring Operation
2 Credit Hours

This course is designed for students and existing sugarmakers who want to develop a profitable operation. It will cover many aspects of how to develop a profitable enterprise, including sugarbush management, sap collection and processing, and marketing of finished products. Sugarbush management will focus on getting the maximum-value out of the timber and other non-timber resources. Sap collection techniques will highlight all of the latest research and developments in getting the most sap out of trees in the most cost-effective manner. The economics and logistics of buying sap and leasing additional taps will be covered in detail. Sap processing will include assessments of various fuels and machinery for converting sap in to syrup. Marketing and business development will highlight opportunities that can result in the greatest returns on capital and time invested. Those taking it for credit will be required to develop a business plan for a sugaring operation. Four-day workshop plus Independent Study time for business plan. Prerequisite: FOR 275 Maple Sap and Syrup Production. Typically offered in summer.

FOR 310: Forest Ecology
3 Credit Hours

Forest Ecology is the study of composition, structure and function of forest ecosystems. The biotic and abiotic components are analyzed, bringing together climate, soil, physiography, trees and other forest organisms. The ecological principles governing forest establishment, competition, succession and growth are emphasized along with the carbon, nitrogen and water cycle.(3 hours lecture). Prerequisites: FOR 101: Introduction to Forestry and FOR 110: Dendrology, or BIO 210: General Ecology. Typically offered in spring.

FOR 330: Soils and Hydrology
4 Credit Hours

This course examines the structure and function of soil as a fundamental component of the earth system. The roles of soil in providing vital services to natural and human communities through climate regulation, water and nutrient cycling, as habitat for plants and animals, and by providing humans with food and fiber will be discussed. The laboratory reinforces lecture and is designed to provide students with the ability to collect, analyze, interpret, and communicate soil and hydrologic data. Through this course students will develop a fundamental understanding of soils and hydrology and the role that soil plays in sustainable management of natural resources. 3 hours of lecture, 3 hours of lab. Prerequisite: BIO 210 General Ecology. Typically offered in fall.

FOR 340: Forest Management
4 Credit Hours

This course is designed to teach the fundamentals of decision making in relation to forest management. The course has three major parts: The first part deals with land and timber appraising techniques. The time - value of money and investment decision models are discussed along with forest taxation. The second part deals with traditional methods for regulating even- and uneven-aged forests, rotation determination and allowable cut calculations. The third part covers the more advanced topics such as linear programming for maximization, multiple use management practices (with an emphasis on recreation, wildlife, and water), appraisal of non-timber resources and the fundamentals for writing a forest management plan. Excel spreadsheets and the use of Geographic Information Systems for development of the students’ forest management plans is strongly encouraged (3 hours lecture, 3 hours lab). Prerequisites: FOR 260: Silviculture and FOR 241: Forest Mensuration II. Typically offered in spring.

FOR 346: Integrated Vegetation Management
3 Credit Hours

Integrated Vegetation Management (IVM) utilizes mechanical, chemical, ecological and cultural techniques to manage vegetation in a variety of settings, including forest and park lands, power line and highway rights-of-way and to eradicate invasive plant species. An understanding of the ecological interrelationships between herbaceous plants, shrubs and trees is a major emphasis of the course. The lab component of the course will focus on the use of computers and GIS systems as well as field mapping and inventory of plant communities to develop appropriate management programs and control techniques. There will be one or more field trips to vegetation management project sites. (2hour lecture, 3 hour lab) Prerequisite: FOR 110: Dendrology

FOR 350: Forest Policy
3 Credit Hours

This course will examine the evolution of forestry as an applied science. Emphasis will be placed on identifying the major scientific and social drivers which have created the emergence of new paradigms in forestry. Policy and actual forestry practices will be examined concurrently to better understand how land-use decisions are made. The scope of this course will range from local forestry issues within the Adirondack Park, to global issues faced in the developing world which, strive to strike a balance between development and preservation. General topics will include historical land-use shifts, environmentalism, economic shifts, interagency conflict, conservation mechanisms, and cross-border forest policies. (3 hours lecture). Prerequisites: NRS 101: Introduction to Natural Resources & Society or FOR 101: Introduction to Forestry. Typically offered in spring.

FOR 380: Understory and Ground Cover Flora
3 Credit Hours

In this course, students will explore and develop skills in classifying the understory and ground cover flora of the region including ferns, club mosses, wildflowers and shrubs. Students will learn the lifecycles, anatomy and features used to identify plants and learn various characteristics of plants including edibility, toxicity, habitat and protective status. This course will help train those interested in conducting research and leading interpretive walks for the public. Classes will be held in the field and in the classroom. Prior knowledge of botanical nomenclature is beneficial. LAS. Prerequisite(s): FOR 110: Dendrology OR BIO 204: Plant Biology. Typically offered in fall.

FOR 395: Forestry Externship
3 Credit Hours

Students spend from 240 to 400 hours working for an organization that carries out forestry-related activities, such as an industrial firm, consulting company, government agency, non-profit conservation/ environmental group, or a research institute. The student must identify a sponsoring supervisor at the chosen organization and have the supervisor provide both a written description of the proposed student work plan and a final performance review. It is the responsibility of the student to secure the externship, and to obtain approval, prior to beginning the externship, from the Dean of the Division or the designated Externship Coordinator. Grading is on a pass/fail basis. Prerequisite: One full year of course work in major. Typically offered in summer.

FOR 400: Forest Products
3 Credit Hours

The major emphasis of this course is on wood and its use as the raw material for forest products industries. The physical and chemical nature of wood, important wood properties, and the nature and properties of major wood products will be covered. The production processes that result in products made from forest resources are covered in depth, these include lumber manufacturing, kiln drying, conversion of “waste” into valued wood products, and pulping of wood products. Some of the products covered in this course include: paper, dimensional lumber, finished lumber, veneer, engineered wood products, woody biofuels, and specialty wood products. Tours of production facilities is a component of this course. (2 hours lecture, 3 hours lab). Prerequisites: FOR 150: Wood Properties and Production Processes and FOR 235: Timber Harvesting.

FOR 420: Advanced Silviculture
3 Credit Hours

Building on knowledge gained in FOR 260 (Silviculture), the course emphasizes the relationship between the science of silviculture and the social, political, ecological, technological, and physiographic environments within which silviculture is practiced. The course is not, therefore, simply a more in-depth treatment of aspects of elementary silviculture, but rather a treatment of silviculture in a broader context. The course addresses innovative silvicultural practices, the relationships between silviculture and contemporary forestry issues, and the effects of silvicultural practices on forest values and uses. Regional and international silvicultural practices and issues are also discussed. In addition, the relationships between silviculture and non-timber forest management objectives, including aesthetics and non-timber forest products, are explored. Students will study and discuss the scientific literature in the field. Field trips and indoor lab periods will explore silvicultural practices in the northeastern US as well as provide the opportunity to conduct group research projects. (2 hours lecture, 4 hours lab) Prerequisite: FOR 260: Silviculture. Typically offered in fall.

Geographic Information Systems

GIS 201: Introduction to GIS
3 Credit Hours

This course will introduce students to the most widely used Geographic Information System software called ArcView. Students will learn what GIS is and how it works. High-quality maps will be created through projects that require students to analyze and organize information tailored to various situations. Students will also learn how professionals in a wide range of fields are using GIS and how it can be a useful tool in their future careers. (2 hours lecture, 3 hours lab).

GIS 230: Geospatial Information Technologies for Forestry
3 Credit Hours

This course introduces general uses of geospatial information technologies (GIT) – geographic information systems (GIS), remote sensing, and global positioning systems (GPS) – with applications to natural resource management and forestry. Skills in basic mapmaking with GIS software, aerial photos and handheld GPS units are developed. Quantitative skills (such as measuring areas, distances, bearings, heights of objects, and elevations of the ground) from aerial photos as well as calculations utilizing computer spreadsheets are emphasized. Forest stand mapping, inventory plot location using GPS, and stereo aerial photo measurements are applications presented. (2 hours lecture, 3 hours lab). Prerequisite: MAT 125: College Algebra or taken concurrently. QP-R.

GIS 260: Geodesy, GPS and GIS
4 Credit Hours

An intensive hands-on course introducing concepts and applications in Geodesy, Global Positioning Systems (GPS) and Geographic Information Systems (GIS), with an emphasis on their use in surveying. Emphasis is on determining the validity, accuracy and reliability of data collected. Students will apply these concepts and technologies in several group and individual projects. GPS hardware and software, as well as GIS software, will be used extensively. (Five 24-hour weeks) Prerequisite(s): SVR 235: Surveying III: Field Experience

GIS 335: Advanced GIS Techniques
3 Credit Hours

This course provides advanced training and experience in Geographic Information Systems. Advanced GIS Techniques is a continuation of GIS 201: Introduction to GIS where students will learn new skills and refine skills previously acquired. Topics include data acquisition and automation, Global Positioning Systems (GPS), spatial analysis, cartographic modeling and output design. Software used during the course will include MS PowerPoint, ArcView, Spatial Analyst, and GPS Pathfinder. Students will be required to select a project that will focus on creating a database, using both Spatial Analyst and GPS, analyzing their own data, producing a high-quality map product, and presenting the findings in a public format. (2 hours lecture, 3 hours lab). Prerequisite: GIS 201: Introduction to GIS.

GIS 350: Introduction to Remote Sensing
3 Credit Hours

Building on knowledge from Aerial Photo Interpretation (GIS 220) or Photogrammetry (SRV 210), the fundamentals of non-photographic remote sensing will be presented. Several current types of remotely sensed imagery from various platforms, utilizing many portions of the electromagnetic spectrum, will be discussed. Experience with image analysis and classification techniques using digital image processing software will culminate in a map that will be useful for natural resource management or environmental assessment applications. Students will also learn the importance of statistical map accuracy assessments in order to judge the quality of their own maps or those produced by others. (2 hours lecture, 3 hours lab) Prerequisite: MAT 125 College Algebra and GIS 201 Introduction to GIS and Corequisite: MAT 210: Statistics.

GIS 420: GIS Applications
3 Credit Hours

This course provides students with the experience of how Geographic Information Systems are applied to forestry and natural resources. GIS Applications is a project-oriented course which is the final GIS course taught in the series. Projects include application of GIS in forestry, landscape ecology, wetlands, land management and surveying. Software used during the course will include MS PowerPoint, ArcView, Spatial Analyst and GPS Pathfinder. Students will be required to select and plan their own project that will focus on an application of GIS, thus creating a database, analyzing their own data, creating metadata, producing a high-quality map product, and presenting their methods, results and map products professionally. (2 hours lecture, 3 hours lab).

Hospitality and Restaurant

HOS 101: Hotel, Resort and Tourism Industry Orientation
3 Credit Hours

This is an introductory course covering hotel operations from Biblical inns to the present complex structure of hotels/resorts and the evolution of tourism due to improvements in transportation, communication and technology. The course provides an overview of the hospitality business and introduces students to a variety of career paths available within the hospitality industry. Students are also introduced to the concept of student assessment portfolios.

HOS 150: Front Office/Property Management
3 Credit Hours

This course prepares students for front office operations at a hotel/resort. The course provides an overview of front office accounting and night audit practices, communications and guest services, and front office management functions. Students will participate in role-playing and individual/group activities to simulate real-life situations frequently encountered within the Front Office. The course also incorporates exercises in telephone answering skills and room selling strategies.

HOS 210: Hotel Accounting
3 Credit Hours

A course designed for the Hotel/Restaurant Management student who has completed a course in introductory accounting at the college level. It consists of explanation and demonstration of the more common techniques and methods by which management can interpret, analyze, and make decisions from information provided by accounting systems. Prerequisite: ACC 101: Financial Accounting

HOS 250: Convention Sales and Promotion
3 Credit Hours

Topics covered include defining various group meetings, locating these groups, identifying their respective needs, and preparing for their sale and service. Promotional sales trips for putting theories into practice may also be undertaken.

HOS 265: Hotel Practicum
6 Credit Hours

The Practicum provides a quality, professional, faculty supervised learning experience for hospitality students as they practice total guest satisfaction skills in a profit oriented enterprise. The practicum applies classroom concepts to practical situations and integrates hands-on experience with academic instruction. Students gain entry-level experience in numerous areas of a commercial operation including food and beverage (wait staff, host/maitre’d, bar back) and rooms division (housekeeping, laundry, front desk, reservations, sales, accounting, conference support services). Students will be expected to document 400 hours of industry work experience by the conclusion of this course. Prerequisite(s): HOS 101: Hotel Resort Tourism Orientation and HOS 150: Front Office Property Management and an overall 2.0 minimum GPA.

HOS 270: Hospitality Applications
6 Credit Hours

Hospitality Applications is a course that offers students the opportunity to work, as part of a team lead by upperclassmen, with an external hospitality organization (hotels, restaurant, tourism associations) to research and create opinions on a specific aspect of its business. Within the organization, the students will assist in the creation of interview questions for key personnel and review business standards and procedures to understand its current operations. The students will research industry trends, best practice methods, and key performance measures to report to team leaders, in order for the team to develop multiple alternatives or business scenarios for the organization to consider. A professional findings report, that discusses the selected solutions along with advantages and disadvantages of each, will be a major deliverable of the course. The course will culminate in the students orally presenting the findings to the organization’s management followed by a robust roundtable discussion. Pre-requisites: HOS 101: Hotel, Resort and Tourism Orientation and HOS 210: Hotel Accounting.

HOS 295: Hotel Externship
6 Credit Hours

Students will complete a semester or more working in an on-the-job experience, Students will sign a contractual agreement with an externship site related to their major. A choice of one of the following options is available: 1) Competitive participation in one of the externships developed by the College; or 2) Independent externship in the industry secured by the student that meets the approval of the Program Coordinator. Verifiable full-time work experience of 400 hours in the hospitality industry prior to enrollment at Paul Smith’s College may be substituted for either option 1 or 2. (See Externship Verification Process section). Enrollment in either of the two options requires a GPA of 2.00 or better. Grading is pass/fail based on completion of the contractual agreement with the externship property and adherence to their rules and regulations of employment, as well as to Paul Smith’s College rules of student conduct.

HOS 299: Special Topics in Hospitality
3 Credit Hours

This course will provide students with an opportunity to study Hospitality topics which are not normally offered. These courses are selected for their potential to contribute both to the professional and intellectual development of students. In most cases, student demand or faculty expertise (or both) are factors which influence the selection and timing of these courses. Prerequisite(s): HOS 101: Hotel, Resort and Tourism Industry Orientation or RES 132: Dining Rom and Kitchen Operations

HOS 300: Service Economy
3 Credit Hours

A course designed to introduce the student to the significance of economic transitions from agriculture, through manufacturing, and on to one of the most significant economic paradigms of the last 50 years: service and experience. The student will review historical examples of economic paradigm shifts and numerous case studies of successful companies that have implemented competitive service initiatives. The student will additionally be charged with identifying quality and value of service and its delivery in modern society and how it impacts consumer behavior. Prerequisite(s): SC-F and SC-R.

HOS 310: Beverages: History of the World in Six Glasses
3 Credit Hours

This course charts world history through the story of six beverages: beer, wine, spirits, coffee, tea, and Coca-Cola. The modern system of taxation, social castes, America’s independent spirit, freedom of information and society’s move toward globalization have all been made possible by these beverages. Student must have completed a Social Cultural Foundational course.

HOS 315: The Practical Brewing
3 Credit Hours

This course focuses on beer as a manufactured product and the brewing process itself. Through hands-on laboratory training, the student will learn the fundamentals of beer making from scratch; major categories of beer will be demonstrated. Using a variety of brewery equipment and technology the student will develop knowledge of beer brewing and the critical role of health and safety. The course will include field experiences at regional brewing facilities. (2 hours lecture, 2 hours lab). Prerequisite: FSN 110: Food Science, QP-R.

HOS 318: The Business of Craft Beer
3 Credit Hours

This course focuses on beer as a saleable product after the production phase. It provides an overview of the growing beer industry with topics ranging from the practical elements of marketing, promotion, service and profitability. These areas will be presented from different perspectives as they relate to a range of sectors within the industry. Potential career in each sector of the industry will be highlighted and punctuated with guest lecturers and trend topic discussions. (3 hours lecture). Prerequisites: MKT 200: Principles of Marketing and Sales, HOS 315: Practical Brewing, MKT 305: Advertising and Promotion, QP-R.

HOS 320: Festival & Major Event Management
3 Credit Hours

This course examines the full event planning process; beginning with the anatomy of an event to establish the different layers of an event experience and the step by step processes needed to plan, design, and execute events that will meet the needs of both customers and audiences. Course may include involvement in an area special event. Prerequisite(s): HOS 101: Hotel Resort and Tourism Management, RES 132: Dining Room and Kitchen Management or REC 101: Intro to Recreation.

HOS 325: Destination Dynamics
3 Credit Hours

Tourism does not just happen. Destinations are a mix of attractions and events, facilities, infrastructure, transportation, and hospitality resources that must be carefully planned for and marketed. This course looks at the tourism system through destination planning and development, marketing, demand factors influencing the market, and the characteristics of travel. A multidisciplinary approach will utilize principles, concepts and theories from psychology, economics, planning, and marketing that influence tourism. Those involved in tourism will see where they fit, who is affected by their actions, and how they are affected by the actions of other system participants. Numerous destinations will be analyzed, including the Adirondacks, and guest speakers from multiple levels of the tourism system will offer their perspectives on tourism and what it takes to create and maintain a successful destination. Prerequisite: MKT 200: Principles of Marketing.

HOS 331: Hospitality Futures
3 Credit Hours

This is a hospitality industry current events course. Using various creative thinking techniques, students will both present and participate in lectures and discussions concerning current and predicted future trends in the hospitality industry. Because of the nature of the course, subject matter will change each semester to reflect the emergence of new cultural, socioeconomic, business, technology and demographic trends. Prerequisites: SC-F AND SC-R.

HOS 350: Field Studies in Hospitality
6 Credit Hours

This course that offers students the opportunity to work directly with an outside hospitality organization (hotels, restaurant, tourism associations) to analyze and assess a specific aspect of its business. Within the organization, the students will interview key personnel and review business standards and procedures to understand its current operations. The students will research industry trends, best practice methods, and key performance measures to develop multiple alternatives or business scenarios for the organization to consider. A professional findings report, that discusses the selected solutions along with advantages and disadvantages of each, will be a major deliverable of the course. The course will culminate in the students orally presenting the findings to the organization's management followed by a robust roundtable discussion. Prerequisite: HOS 150: Hotel Resort and Tourism Orientation.

HOS 400: Recreation & Resort Marketing & Management
3 Credit Hours

A course that applies new organizational management techniques to a dynamic, specific segment of the tourism market. Students will discover the unique nature of resorts, the market segments attracted, the complexity of customer service options needed to sustain a market share, and the environmental characteristics that give each resort its differentiation. Heavy emphasis is placed on marketing principles as applied to these destinations. Prerequisite(s): MGT 200: Principles of Management or MKT 200: Principles of Marketing.

HOS 462: Hospitality Business Simulation
3 Credit Hours

The Paul Smith's College capstone experience allows students to finalize their Paul Smith's education by giving students the opportunity to demonstrate mastery of the general education core and programmatic learning objectives. Students apply skills, methodologies and knowledge learned during their courses of study, building on this undergraduate learning experience as they evaluate their readiness for the next stage in their professional development. Prerequisite(s):HOS 210: Hotel Accounting, HOS 331: Hospitality Futures, HOS 350: Field Studies in Hospitality AND completion of 3 courses from the Customer Relations Cluster. This course satisfies the General Education Capstone Requirements for HRTM.

HOS 499: Special Topics in Hospitality
3 Credit Hours

This course will provide students with an opportunity to study hospitality topics which are not normally offered. These courses are selected for their potential to contribute both to the professional and intellectual development of students. In most cases, stduent demand or faculty expertise (or both) are factors which influence the selection and timing of these courses. Prerequisites: HOS 265: Hotel Practicum or CUL 260: Commercial Cooking and Catering.

RES 132: Dining Room and Kitchen Operations
3 Credit Hours

Students will learn about the day-to-day activities involved in managing a restaurant. Through this experience students will acquire specific food operations skills while developing foundational knowledge for upper-division coursework. A restaurant manager often becomes the liaison between front- and back-of-the-house operations; therefore both sides of the house will be explored. An analysis of the history and current state of the industry will serve as a foundation for helping students to acquire the necessary skills to ensure that guests receive excellent service. In this course students will be introduced to the objectives and requirements of the Industry Work Experience Internship.

RES 140 Introduction to Beverage and Table Service Techniques
3 Credit Hours

This course introduces the students to various styles of table service, and the organization, sequencing and timing of service. Beverage service will be discussed with an emphasis on using customer service skills to safely serve and oversee customer consumption of alcoholic beverages. Students will be introduced to the growing business of wine in the hospitality industry.

The course will bring together a variety of information, knowledge, and techniques for developing customer service skills, a la carte table service, front and back of the house communication, and function of an electronic POS System are a among the elements of restaurant service that will be reinforced through a laboratory component to be held during select lunch/dinner shifts at the student/faculty operated restaurant. (1 hour lecture, 3 hours lab).

RES 170: Food Service Sanitation
3 Credit Hours

This course will focus on the importance of sanitation in the food service industry. Students will gain an understanding of the causes of food-borne illnesses and learn how sound sanitation management practices can reduce disease as well as improve food quality and overall success of a restaurant operation. Details concerning food supplies, food handling, the facility and training with regard to sanitation will be included. The process of the HACCP food safety program will be presented and applied. Students will be expected to take the ServSafe certification exam through the Educational Foundation of the National Restaurant Association.

RES 250: Introduction to Food Production
4 Credit Hours

This course provides students with the opportunity to learn and practice basic culinary technical skills that are essential for the foodservice industry. Students will be introduced to professional standards of the industry, knife skills, including handling and care, cooking processes and procedures, product identification, culinary vocabulary and terminology, use of industry equipment, recipe costing and quantity adjustments as well as menu planning. The course will utilize chef demonstrations, group participation, peer evaluations and critiques of properly prepared foods.

RES 310: Field Studies in Food
3 Credit Hours

Field Studies in Food offers students the opportunity to work directly with an outside food service organization to analyze and assess a specific aspect of its business. Within the organization, the students will interview key personnel and review business standards and procedures to understand its current operations. The students will research industry trends, best practice methods, and key performance measures to develop multiple alternatives or business scenarios for the organization to consider. A written professional findings report, that credibly defines the need and discusses data supported selected solutions along with advantages and disadvantages of each, will be a major deliverable of the course. Pre-requisite: CUL 230: Food Service Operations Management. WC-I, AR-I, RE-I.

RES 330: Facilities Planning and Environmental Management
3 Credit Hours

This course focuses on designing systems for facilities. These designs include flow charting, built-in efficiencies in the conservation of human and other energies, and the quick, economical, and ecological disposal and recycling of packaging of other materials. It covers preliminary planning, the roles and responsibilities of members of the project team, the design sequence, principles of design, space analysis, equipment layout, fabricated and manufactured equipment, engineering and architecture for foodservice facilities. Prerequisite(s): HOS 265: Hotel Practicum or CUL 260: Commercial Cooking and Catering.

RES 431: Cultural Enology
3 Credit Hours

The course will examine the history, trends, production and taste qualities of wine as well as beer and spirits as related to wine. Students will research the influence of wine on the economic and social development of various cultures. They will also analyze trends and investigate the impact of wine on the hospitality industry. Students will compare characteristics of major types of wine, evaluate overall quality and formulate wine and food pairings based on general guidelines and personal taste. Prerequisite: Social Cultural Foundation and Reinforcing experience

Humanities

GEO 101: General Geography
3 Credit Hours

This course provides students with an introduction to the physical landscapes of the earth as seen by the geographer. It views the physical landscape as consisting of landforms, climates, and biomes, and provides students with an opportunity to understand the interactions among them. All three features of the landscape are presented as evolving over time; consequently, students will be introduced to dynamic processes associated with geomorphology, meteorology and climatology, and ecology. (3 hours lecture).

GEO 105: Geography of World Destinations
3 Credit Hours

This course is designed primarily for students who wish to pursue travel or hospitality careers. While it is a course that focuses on practical application rather than general education, Geography of World Destinations is far more comprehensive than a place-name geography course. This course helps students understand the relationships between physical and cultural environments found in a variety of world locations. Thus, travel destinations are set in a geographically-meaningful context for further analysis. While this one-semester course cannot possibly cover all travel destinations, the students will select several for detailed study and, in addition, be provided with a framework through which they, at any point in their career, can ascertain the appropriate geographical context for any travel destinations. (3 hours lecture).

GEO 200: Physical and Cultural Geography I
3 Credit Hours

Geography is the social science discipline that focuses on the spatial dimensions of human organization and interaction. This course will provide students with an opportunity to study human landscapes found in different world regions. Students will examine the manner in which both physical and cultural environments (1) condition the values and world view of people in different world regions, (2) influence the social and economic systems which respond to these values, and (3) contribute to the manner in which socio-economic systems are set in regional space. The course uses world regions as a laboratory for learning the basic frameworks used by geographers. Students will select four or five regions for in-depth study. Thus, students will be provided with the opportunity to better understand the human dimensions of global change and gain insight into culture conflicts, the re-emergence of cultural nationalism, hunger and refugees, the spatial diffusion of AIDS, and a host of other issues found in the world today. (3 hours lecture).

GEO 201: Physical and Cultural Geography II
3 Credit Hours

A study of physical and cultural geography of Europe, Africa, and the Middle East. Each country, depending upon its size and importance, is studied in relation to its topographic and native aspects. (3 hours lecture).

GEO 400: Geography of World Cultures
3 Credit Hours

Culture is the most comprehensive organizational mechanism used by humans to meet their basic needs and make sense of their lives. All human behavior, therefore, is seen as taking place in a cultural context. This course provides students with an opportunity to explore the relationship between culture and human use of space. Using selected world regions, students will learn how the human landscape has evolved and how it has been altered over time by agents of global change. (3 hours lecture). Prerequisite: Social/Cultural Foundational Experience.

HNR: Honors Seminars
3 Credit Course

Honors courses provide students with an opportunity to study diverse, interdisciplinary topics which are either not covered in other courses or are explored in more depth and with a greater interdisciplinary focus. These courses are selected for their potential to contribute intellectual and personal development of students. In most cases, student demand or faculty expertise (or both) are factors which influence the selection and timing of these courses. Prerequisites are determined on a course by course basis.

HST 150: Art History
3 Credit Hours

A study of human civilization through art. Student will study objects, structures, materials and techniques that belong to the eras and places of human history. In this course students will be exposed to art as both a result of and an underpinning of culture. Style, subject, detail, purpose and complexity of artistic works will be studied in relation to culture from the most ancient to the art of our contemporaries. The course will expose the student to the fine arts but will emphasize artistry and artisanship as they are required for architecture, furniture, cabinetry, pottery, tapestry, and fabric arts etc. Students will have the opportunity to research the time, place, and kind of artistry each one chooses to explore for the class project.

HST 201: History of the United States Through 1876
3 Credit Hours

This course studies the history of the United States to Reconstruction. Origin and development of America and its institutions from the discovery of the New World to the close of the Reconstruction Period. (3 hours lecture).

HST 202: History of the United States 1877-Present
3 Credit Hours

This course studies significant cultural, economic, political, and social forces from 1877 to the present. Among the topics covered are industrialization, social and political reform movements, foreign policy, World Wars I and II, the Great Depression and the Cold War. (3 hours lecture).

HST 215: The Adirondacks
3 Credit Hours

This course will examine the environmental, political, and cultural history of the Adirondack Mountain region and provide students with an analytical framework for interpreting the landscape and history of our regional environment, the natural world and mankind's relationship to it. (3 hours lecture).

HUM 105: Art of Film
3 Credit Hours

Students will be introduced to major aspects of the art of film, one of this nation’s greatest contributions to human expression. The intention of this course is that by viewing and discussing significant motion pictures in a variety of genres and their artful manipulation of such tools as lighting, framing, movement, sound, and editing, students will develop a richer appreciation. Directing, acting, set design, story telling, and other elements of film production also will be discussed. The course culminates in a written critique of a contemporary film. (2 hours lecture, 2 hours film showing)

HUM 115: Western and World Music
3 Credit Hours

The aim of this course is to increase student understanding and enjoyment of music. The semester will begin with the fundamentals in common musical concepts (basic notation, rhythm, dynamics, melody, harmony, texture, and form) and then survey the principal periods of Western Music (Medieval, Renaissance, Baroque, Classical, Romantic, and Modern). The course will also examine the way in which popular music incorporates the techniques and forms of the composers of the past. Non-Western music, or 'World' Music, will be explored and discussed in order to emphasize the universality of musical expression. Other styles, such as Post-modern Classical, the American Musical, Jazz, etc., will be explored as time permits. Previous musical training is not necessary. (3 hours lecture).

HUM 120: Western Culture: The Ascent of Man
3 Credit Hours

This survey course will be an overview of the origins, evolution and achievements of what we loosely call Western Culture, and how it has shaped our lives today. It will cover technological, philosophical, and cultural advancements and their inter-relationships. The specific contributions of various great historical figures will be highlighted. (3 hours lecture).

HUM 135: Photography
3 Credit Hours

This beginning photography course introduces students to the concepts and the technical skills necessary to create black and white prints. All essentials of black and white photography — from hardware to film to developing to printing to mounting — are covered. A student-owned, fully adjustable SLR camera is needed. Prerequisite: None

HUM 200: Studio Art
3 Credit Hours

This introductory-level course will provide students with "hands-on experience" in the art studio. The concepts and processes necessary to produce art using various techniques such as drawing, painting, woodcarving, and collage will be addressed. Students will be encouraged to experiment with the different mediums. They will be introduced to the principles of composition, dimensionality, and color with an emphasis on individual expression. (3 hours lecture) RE-R, HC-R

HUM 210: Issues in Philosophy
3 Credit Hours

In this basic course, the student is introduced to some of the major questions of philosophy and some of the answers proposed by philosophers from ancient Greece to the present day. This is accomplished by studying such areas of philosophy as ethics, religion, politics, aesthetics, epistemology, and metaphysics. Students will read both original and summary analyses of the philosophical texts; and they will be asked to draw on their own experiences to understand and evaluate the arguments under consideration. (3 hours lecture)

HUM 270: Ethics
3 Credit Hours

This course focuses both on the nature of morality itself and on its practical day-to-day application. It takes a unique “organic” approach to the subject: beginning with the complete ethics of Reverence for Life developed by Dr. Albert Schweitzer it then moves outward from this center to show how the various approaches to ethics are all contained, like a plant in a seed, within that comprehensive formulation and how none can exist apart from it. Emphasis is on critical discussion of the strengths and weaknesses of each idea, on developing an integrated perspective on the whole field of ethics as a foundation for further study, and on practical applications to daily life. (3 hours lecture)

HUM 299: Special Topics in Humanities
3 Credit Hours

This course will provide students with an opportunity to study selected topics, appropriate to the humanities, which are not normally offered. These topics are chosen for their potential to contribute to the intellectual development of the students. Student demand and/or faculty expertise are the two factors which most influence the selection and timing of this course. Course topics might include literary genres, literary themes, visual arts, and ethics, among others. (3 hours lecture)

HUM 300: Philosophy of Nature
3 Credit Hours

This course explores the wide range of ideas about nature that philosophers and other thinkers have developed from ancient times to the present, and examines how such ideas inform (though often invisibly) contemporary debates concerning our relationship to the land, resource use, and other issues. General topic areas include Nature as Empirical Reality, Nature as Synonymous with Reason, Nature as Antithetical to Man, Nature as Moral Lawgiver, Nature as Aesthetic Norm, and Ecological Ideas. Discussion will draw on thinkers ranging from Aristotle, Tertullian, and Descartes to Thoreau, Aldo Leopold, and Frederick Turner. This philosophical component is complemented by readings and discussions of materials from the current press and recent publications. (3 hours lecture). Prerequisite: Responsibility and Expression Foundational Experience.

HUM 320: Latin American and Caribbean Studies
3 Credit Hours

This course explores Latin America, the diverse and complex region including Mesoamerica, South America and the Caribbean, focusing on culture, history, art, food, gender, race, and class to understand the experiences and processes that have shaped the region. Students will reflect on Latin American identity, political history, nation-state formation, modernization and social mobilization based on analysis of primary sources such as cinema, music, literature, art and historical documents along with secondary sources. Prerequisite: SC-F, WC-R

HUM 400: Nature and Art
3 Credit Hours

Students will explore the influence of various theories of nature on visual artists throughout history. In turn, the influence of art on human perception of nature, especially as reflected in the conservationist movement, will be studied. Representative works in painting, sculpture, architecture, photography, film, and video from earliest times to the contemporary period will be discussed. Human expression in landscape design and other manipulations of nature will also form part of the course. Many cultures, particularly Japanese and Native American, will be examined for their contributions to human appreciation of the natural world. (3 hours lecture). Prerequisite: Junior standing.

HUM 499: Special Topics in Humanities
3 Credit Hours

Students will study topics chosen from the traditional humanities courses, such as literature, art, architecture, ethics, linguistics, language, history, archaeology, and anthropology. This course is more advanced than Special Topics in Humanities (HUM 299) and assumes a deeper and broader background in the enrolled student. It is intended to augment and supplement those designated humanities courses described in this catalog. (3 hours lecture). Prerequisite: Junior standing.

Language and Communication

COM 101: Speech
3 Credit Hours

The purpose of the course is to give students training and practice in effective oral communication. English usage of good formal quality is stressed. The attainment of clear and interesting speech, augmented by appropriate public speaking techniques and skills, is emphasized. (3 hours lecture).

COM 102: Introduction to Communication & Leadership
3 Credit Hours

Humans communicate in a variety of different ways both intentionally and unintentionally. This foundation course explores what is meant by the term communication. Students will consider communication theories and models that form interpersonal relationships, group dynamics, and public communication. Students will develop an analytical approach to communication experienced in their own lives and apply that knowledge to make choices about meanings and responses in appropriate, ethical, and effective ways. By the end of the course, students will analyze the connection between effective communication and strong leadership. (3 hours lecture).

COM 105: Business Communications
3 Credit Hours

Although the emphasis is on written communication, the course will also deal with the broader issues of successful communication in modern business, such as the role of technology, the importance of intercultural awareness, and the considerations of ethical and legal behavior. In addition to preparing different types of letters, memos, and short reports, students might work collaboratively on a report to be presented at the end of the semester. (3 hours lecture). Prerequisites: Written Communication Foundational Experience.

COM 201: Interpersonal Communications
3 Credit Hours

Through this course students will analyze interpersonal communication practices

and issues between individuals, small groups, and organizations. Students will develop their ability to actively listen, manage conflict, influence others, and communicate in teams. Throughout the course students will incorporate and consider diverse cultural perspectives to examine how culture influences how we communicate and how we interpret the communication of others. Students will also explore the field of ideas relating to human modes of communication and personal relationships in the shaping of our social environment, this includes a review of the research findings in interpersonal communication, a subject which crosses traditional disciplinary boundaries as it synthesizes findings in psychology, sociology, biology, and communication. RE-R, SC-R, LAS

COM 210: Technical Communications
3 Credit Hours

This course enables students to collect, manage and translate technical information to prescribed audiences to increase broader understanding and facilitate action. In this information age we are deluged with large amounts of information. The process of technical communication involves, collecting, organizing and evaluating that information and then translating it into easily understood formats through a variety of media. Technical communication also involves writing to prescribed criteria such as grant applications, report specifications and other formats. Therefore this course requires consideration of research, visuals, format, audience-awareness, syntax, semantics, and most importantly, the ability to communicate ideas clearly and succinctly. (3 hours lecture) Prerequisite: WC-F.

COM 220: New Media Tools: Various Topics
3 Credit Hours

“New Media” refers to interactive forms of communication that use digital computer technology for distribution and exhibition. Often these objects can be manipulated by both creator and user. This course will provide opportunities for students to develop their skills in using these communication tools. Each tool is presented as a separate course under a distinctive topic name. Topics could include (but are not limited to) web design, podcasts, RSS feeds, designing for social networks, blogs, wikis, virtual worlds and more! (3 hours lecture).

COM 216: Mass Communication
3 Credit Hours

The course provides a critical overview and analysis of how mass communication tools and systems have influenced our society and ourselves. By grounding our study in the founding principles of the First Amendment, the course will facilitate analysis of the following questions: What is meant by the term mass communication? What influence does mass communication have on our public discourse and the way we function as a society? How is a message crafted to fit a specific media format or to reach a specific demographic? What kind of messages are truly for the masses and what messages are for defined groups and why? How do new media formats compare to historic methods and what are the implications of these new trends? Through this analysis, students should become critical consumers of communication messages. Prerequisite: ENG 101 English Composition or equivalent WC-F.

COM 305: Change Management
3 Credit Hours

When communities come together to address a specific issue or develop a project, change is inevitable. This course will investigate how individuals respond and react to change. Students will explore strategies to effectively and cooperatively address these concerns and by investigating and committing to skills and best practices associated with inspiring action, minimizing resistance, and gaining commitment. Specific focus will be given to models of change processes such as Appreciative Inquiry and Action Research which can leverage existing culture to prevent resistance and promote accountability. Prerequisites: WC-F and SC-F.

COM 310: Facilitation and Reporting
3 Credit Hours

Effective group facilitation involves using a variety of different communication skills to assist groups to use effective process for decision making. A facilitator is a guide who helps people move through a process together. The role of the facilitator is to focus on how people participate in the process, how ideas are shared and heard, and how that discussion gets translated into action items that have group support. Through this course, student will develop effective facilitation skills and processes to assist groups in making decisions, planning, and developing action oriented reports.

COM 320: Creating and Communicating Value
3 Credit Hours

The ability to persuade others is vital to leadership and advocacy. "Selling" an idea or product should be based on a clear understanding of the audience in terms of who they are, what they want, and how the proposed solution will meet those needs in a way that holds value for all stakeholders. This course will help the student develop interpersonal skills to build trust, shape meaningful dialog, and form meaningful partnerships. The course will also focus on how to specifically analyze audience and market data to determine value and propose solutions that hold value for both the organization and the individual involved in the process. Prerequisites: QP-F, COM 201: Interpersonal Communication, COM 210: Technical Communication.

COM 340: Reporting and Writing Environmental News
3 Credit Hours

This course addresses the topic generation, topic research, reporting and news writing process in the context of environmental concerns and issues. The course also addresses news/media and reporting business and ethical concerns, including changing readership, print and digital outlets and social responsibility in journalism. Students will engage in a semester-long news reporting and writing workshop guided by content presentations and discussions addressing the theoretical and practical concerns of writing environmental news, journal articles, feature essays and other non-fiction formats. Prerequisites: Written Communication Foundation and Written Communication Reinforcing AND one of the following: EST 101, or BIO 101, or SUS 101, or ENV 110, or NRS 101, POL 202, or ENV 110, or EST 200.

COM 495: Communication Exploration
3 Credit Hours

As a culminating experience, students will have the opportunity to design, develop and in some cases implement a communication plan for a given organization or project. Through this process students will have the opportunity to explore how the communication skills and knowledge acquired through their program of study can be used in their chosen field. Students will analyze the communication issues or problems and develop a solution that is grounded in best practices and credible data from the field. Student can opt to work as part of the course team or independently. The independent option may include the opportunity for internship if approved by the course instructor in advance. At the conclusion of the course, students will present findings and lessons learned as part of a comprehensive report and oral presentation. Capstone Course. (3 hours lecture if class cohort). Prerequisites: SOC 220, SOC 315, COM 310, COM 320.

ENG 101: English Composition I
3 Credit Hours

This course consists chiefly of expository writing with emphasis on rhetoric, grammar, and mechanics, which may be studied as ends themselves. Effective revision strategies will be taught. Instruction in the use of the library and the writing of a library research paper are included, and attention is given to literature (essays, poems, short stories, etc.) as time permits. (3 hours lecture).

ENG 102: English Composition II
3 Credit Hours

This writing-intensive course complements English Composition I (ENG 101). The main purpose is to develop critical thinking and expository writing skills through the study of and written reaction to various professional texts, literary, persuasive, or some combination thereof. The work will consist chiefly of written essays, with emphasis on audience awareness, ownership, clarity, organizational methods, and logic. The course will also include a research component. (3 hours lecture). Prerequisite: Communication Foundational Experience.

ENG 103: Hearts and Minds: Making Good Arguments
3 Credit Hours

American democracy depends upon an informed and critically attuned citizenry. Advancement in one’s career similarly depends upon critical thinking and eloquent advancement of one’s ideas. In this course we will study classical and modern techniques of argument and persuasion and methods logical and illogical others use to influence our behavior. Class discussion of current issues will result in essays aimed at developing student argumentative and persuasive skills. Posters, advertising, video, and class debate may also be part of the course. Time or similar magazine and a polemical novel will be two of our texts. At semester’s end students will prepare a lengthy written argument along with an oral presentation. (3 hours lecture). Prerequisite: Written Communication Foundation

ENG 104 : Social and Political Issues in American Films
3 Credit Hours

Students will view major American films covering an array of topics and themes at the core of the national debate. Controversial feature films such as Dead Man Walking, Thelma and Louise, and Philadelphia, will be studied for their insights as well as biases. Building on the skills learned in the Communication Foundation, students will write a variety of papers on issues raised by these films, such as racism, censorship, sexual discrimination, environmental destruction, and war making. A research paper and an oral presentation on a matter of controversy will culminate the semester. (3 lecture hours, 2 film showing hours). Prerequisite: Written Communication Foundation

ENG 105: Food Writing
3 Credit Hours

Food writing plays an integral role in the culinary arts. Concise recipes and persuasive menus, for example, are tools for communication between the culinary professional and the consumer. In this course, students will build on the writing skills acquired at the foundation level while enhancing their knowledge of food. Students will compare and analyze the writing styles found in recipes, menus, essays, newspaper reviews, poetry, food in fiction, journal articles and internet blogs. Through this analysis students will develop their own preferences for expressing a point of view about food in these formats. Students will be expected to develop a culinary-based research project, a personal memoir enriched with recipes, and to participate in class discussions, critiques and formal presentations of projects. Prerequisite: Written Communication Foundation. LAS, SC-S,S-S, WC-R, SC-R

ENG 115: Wilderness in American Literature
3 Credit Hours

This course will provide students with an analytical framework for interpreting perhaps our nation’s greatest contribution to world literature, nature-based writing. Particular emphasis will be placed on wilderness encounters as seen in its classic, mostly American, environmental writers from the early republic to more recent times. Explorers like Meriweather Lewis, naturalists like William Bartram, poets like Henry David Thoreau, artists like John James Audubon, adventurers like John Wesley Powell, scientists like E.O. Wilson, preservationists like John Muir, conservationists like Aldo Leopold, and philosophers like Thomas Merton will help the class dive into the issue that has always vexed us: how do we live rightly on this planet? (3 hours lecture). Prerequisite: Written Communication Foundational Experience.

ENG 200: Advanced Composition
3 Credit Hours

In this course the student learns by writing and by analyzing essays, both professional models and student themes. Students will analyze contemporary writers as an aid to the study of style and technique. (3 hours lecture). Prerequisite: Written Communication Foundational Experience.

ENG 210 - American Literature from Exploration through the Civil War
3 Credit Hours

From the Exploration and Colonial Periods to the Civil War, this course surveys the writings of explorers and Americans of diverse backgrounds in an attempt to understand the character of the American experience. In addition to studying such classic authors as Franklin, Thoreau, Poe, and Whitman, students will read the journals of explorers, diaries of colonial settlers, slave narratives and Native American poetry and prose. (3 hours lecture). Prerequisite: Written Communication Foundational Experience.

ENG 211 American Literature from Reconstruction through the Vietnam War
3 Credit Hours

This course forms the second half of a survey of the rich literary life of the United States. From Reconstruction, Westward Expansion, and the era of industrial and urban development to more recent times, the writings of our many peoples will be examined as they comment on the nature of the American story. Selections from Native American, Hispanic, Afro-American, Jewish, and other traditions will be read along with the work of such traditional figures as Twain, James, Hemingway, Frost, and Faulkner. (3 hours lecture). Prerequisite: Written Communication Foundational Experience.

ENG 220: Creative Writing
3 Credit Hours

Combined lecture and workshop in the writing of poetry, fiction, and drama (emphasis may vary). As background to the writing itself, attention will be given to the creative process and to necessary elements of craft and of tradition. (3 hours lecture). Prerequisite: Written Communication Foundational Experience.

ENG 240: Women in Literature
3 Credit Hours

This course will focus on American and English women writers and critics studied in relation to literary developments defining and affecting women's roles in society and the arts. Primary texts are studied, along with critical theory of writing by women. (3 hours lecture).

ENG 340: Contemporary Environmental Writers
3 Credit Hours

This advanced literature survey course will study contemporary nonfiction and literary journalism that focuses on issues in nature, natural history, the environment and their related topics. Students in Contemporary Environmental Writing will examine literature that reveals and interprets the environment and its social, philosophical, economic, and cultural contexts and implications. Readings may include works by noted contemporary writers such as E.O. Wilson, Barry Lopez, Edward Abbey, Terry Tempest Williams, Bill McKibben, Wendell Berry, Rick Bass, Annie Dillard, Peter Matthiessen, Stephen Jay Gould, and David Quammen. (3 hours lecture). Prerequisites: Communication Foundation and Structural

ENG 350: World Literature
3 Credit Hours

This course is a study of the interconnections among literatures from a wide variety of cultures, eras, and genres. An upper-division survey course, World Literature examines the roles literature plays within cultures. (3 hours lecture). Prerequisite: Written Communication Foundation and Social Cultural Foundation. SC-R, RE-R.

ENG 400: Writing on Nature and the Environment
3 Credit Hours

This course is designed as an advanced writing workshop, and students will study and practice the writing and editing skills necessary to interpret the environment through its social, philosophical, scientific, economic or cultural aspects. This course will also expose the student to techniques in nonfiction and literary journalism employed by contemporary writers on issues in nature, natural history, the environment and related topics. A student’s final project will include a publishable work - review, feature, essay, study or memoir - to be presented to the College community, as well as submitted for possible publication in a regional or national periodical. (3 hours lecture). Prerequisites: One Foundation Level Course in the Communication Literacy, one Structural Level Experience in the Communication Literacy and one Structural Experience in the Human Condition Literacy.

LAN 107: Conversational Language I
3 Credit Hours

Conversational Language I is the first course in a series that provides an introduction to a target language, and associated culture and history. Students with little or no background in a given language will study phonology, grammar, syntax, and basic vocabulary. The course will blend individualized web-based learning programs, field experiences (when possible), and in-class discussion and lecture to develop language skills and compare and contrast language use in various cultures. (3 hours lecture). RE-R, SC-R, LAS.

LAN 108: Conversational Language II
3 Credit Hours

Conversational Language II is the second course in a series that provides an introduction to a target language, and associated culture and history. Students with little or no background in a given language will study phonology, grammar, syntax, and basic vocabulary. The course will blend individualized web-based learning programs, field experiences (when possible), and in-class discussion and lecture to develop language skills and compare and contrast language use in various cultures. (3 hours lecture). Prerequisite: LAN 107: Conversational Language I (in the same language) or an Elementary Language I class (in the same language). RE-R, SC-R, LAS

LAN 109: Conversational Language III
3 Credit Hours

Conversational Language III introduces students who already have a foundation in the target language (level 2 competency) to more complex language structure. Students will expand their vocabulary as they practice the four skills of speaking, listening, reading, and writing on an increasingly sophisticated level. To the extent possible, in-class discussion will be conducted in the target language. Readings will encompass a variety of literary genres such as essays, poetry, and short stories, with a major objective being to introduce students to icons of the culture(s) that primarily use this language. Reading and writing skills will be refined as students translate, write, and respond to these readings in the target language. The course will also include a broader exploration of the arts and culture related to this language. (3 hours lecture). Prerequisite: LAN 108: Conversational Language II (in the same language) or an Elementary Language II class (in the same language). RE-R, SC-R, LAS

Mathematics

MAT 097: Fundamentals of Mathematics
0 Credit Hours Fall/Spring/Summer Semesters

This course is designed for students in all programs of study and includes basic algebra concepts and fundamental skills needed for success in higher level mathematics courses. This course does not provide college credit, or fulfill any degree program requirements. Topics include basic algebraic expressions, mathematical models, real numbers, exponents, polynomials, rational expressions, radicals, graphing, factoring and solving linear and quadratic equations and applications. Emphasis is given to solving applied problems from different curricula. This course has 4 contact hours (3 hours of instruction and 1 hour of recitation).

MAT 110: Finite Math
3 Credit Hours

This is an introductory course in using mathematics as a basis for making logical decisions. The course will include the algebra of linear equations and inequalities and the solution of linear equations needed to solve linear programming problems geometrically. Other topics include set theory, matrices, basic statistics and the analysis of graphs. (3 hours lecture). Prerequisite: MAT 099: Fundamentals of Math II with a grade of “C” or better or Accuplacer placement.

MAT 125: College Algebra
3 Credit Hours

This course will start with a review of basic algebra (factoring, solving linear equations and inequalities, etc) and will introduce various functions to include polynomial, rational, exponential, logarithmic and radical functions. Techniques of graphing these functions will also be explored. Additionally students will study systems of equations and sequences and series. (3 hours lecture). Prerequisite: MAT 099: Fundamentals of Math II with a grade of “C” or better or Accuplacer placement.

MAT 135: Financial Math
3 Credit Hours

This course will examine the use of mathematics to solve contemporary problems, in particular real financial transactions. The concepts of algebraic manipulations of equations, exponential equations, logarithms and mathematical modeling will be emphasized. Students will analyze trends and current problems using graphs, spreadsheets, Internet resources, and financial equations. Course topics will include time value of money, present value and future value, simple and compound interest, ordinary annuities, sinking funds, amortization, stocks and investments. (3 hours lecture). Prerequisite: MAT 125: College Algebra or MAT 110: Finite Math or Accuplacer placement.

MAT 145: Trigonometry
3 Credit Hours

This course is devoted to the study of plane trigonometry. Formal topics include: solution of right and oblique triangles, trigonometric identities and equations, graphs of trigonometric functions, and applied problems. (3 hours lecture). Prerequisite: MAT 125: College Algebra or Accuplacer placement.

MAT 180: Pre-Calculus
3 Credit Hours

This course will cover topics that prepare a student to study in many different technical venues. Topics covered will prepare the student for further work in more advanced math courses particularly the Calculus sequence. Topics that covered include a very brief review of algebra concepts, with a more in depth treatment of linear equations and inequalities, quadratic equations and inequalities, graphing and modeling basic functions to include polynomial, rational, exponential, logarithmic and trigonometric. Additionally students will study systems of equations, conic sections, analytic geometry, sequences, series, binomial expansion and an introduction to limits. (3 hours lecture). Prerequisite: MAT 125: College Algebra or Accuplacer placement.

MAT 210: Statistics
3 Credit Hours

This is an introductory course in statistics, designed to familiarize the student with numerical and graphical data distributions; exploratory data analysis; correlation and linear regression; the normal and binomial probability distributions; confidence intervals and some hypothesis testing. (3 hours lecture). Prerequisite: MAT 125: College Algebra or MAT 110: Finite Math or appropriate Accuplacer placement.

MAT 241: Calculus I
4 Credit Hours

In this introductory calculus course, students will use practical problems to develop the concepts of calculus. Students will gain an appreciation of the usefulness of calculus to a broad range of applications. The concept of a function, including polynomial, rational, exponential, logarithmic, and trigonometric, the derivative, applications of differentiation and the definite integral will be covered. Prerequisite: MAT 180: Pre-Calculus, Accuplacer placement, or Accuplacer placement into a QP-R course AND successful completion of a QP-R with a MAT designation with a B or better.

MAT 242: Calculus II
4 Credit Hours

This course is a continuation of Calculus I (MAT 241). Students will use practical problems to develop the concepts of integral calculus and to introduce differential equations. By focusing on the ideas behind solving the problems, the student will be able to solve a broad range of problems. Definite and indefinite integrals and first-order separable differential equations and their applications will all be approached from the graphical, numerical and analytical points of view. (4 hours lecture). Prerequisite: MAT 241: Calculus I.

MAT 243: Calculus III
4 Credit Hours

This course is a continuation of Calculus II (MAT 242). Students will use practical problems to develop the concepts of multivariable calculus. Students will gain an appreciation of the possibilities for problem solving when freed from the constraints of modeling with one independent variable. Approximating functions with Taylor and Fourier series, vectors, partial derivatives, directional derivatives, gradients, the differential, methods of calculating multiple integrals, parametric curves and surfaces, vector fields, and their applications will all be approached from the graphical, numerical and analytical points of view. If time permits, line integrals, flux integrals, divergence and curl will be discussed. (4 hours lecture). Prerequisite: MAT 242: Calculus II.

MAT 290: Guided Research in Mathematics I
3 Credit Hours

This course provides students with the opportunity to conduct advanced study and research in a mathematical subject that is of particular interest to them, to be selected, designed, and conducted by the student under the guidance of a faculty member. Prerequisite: permission of the Dean.

MAT 331: Differential Equations
3 Credit Hours

This course is to provide an introduction to the fundamental concepts of ordinary differential equations. The course should prepare students for advanced study in engineering or the physical, mathematical, biological, or social sciences. This course deals with first- and second-order differential equations and their applications. (3 hours lecture). Prerequisite: MAT 243: Calculus III.

MAT 335: Financial Decision Making
3 Credit Hours

This course will examine the use of mathematics to solve contemporary mathematical problems using real financial transactions as examples. Students will analyze trends and current problems using graphs, spreadsheets, internet resources, and financial equations. Students will develop an Investment Portfolio and write a report on the semester long investigation they conduct on the investing world. Their report will be research based and they will use their own portfolio as an example of the topics they study. Concepts involving algebraic manipulations of equations, exponential equations, and mathematical modeling with their applications to financial decision-making will be emphasized. Course topics will include time value of money, present value and future value, simple and compound interest, ordinary annuities, sinking funds, amortization, stocks and investments. Pre-requisites: MAT 125: College Algebra or MAT 110: Finite Math I or appropriate Accuplacer placement. WC-I, QP-I.

MAT 390: Guided Research in Mathematics II
3 Credit Hours

This course provides students with the opportunity to conduct advanced study in a subject area within the fields of Natural Resources, Science and Liberal Arts that is of particular interest to them. The study will be selected, designed, and conducted by the student under the guidance of a faculty member. Prerequisite: permission of the Dean.

Natural Resources

NRS 110: Intro to Natural Resources & Society
3 Credit Hours

This interdisciplinary course addresses the scientific, cultural, economic, philosophical, historical, and legal dimensions of the complex environmental challenges facing humanity. The course will begin with a conceptual overview of key issues, and trace the evolution of our society’s uses and management of various natural resources. The course will examine both domestic and global resource sustainability challenges. Students will consider resource allocation issues from a variety of professional, cultural, and socio-economic perspectives. Particular attention will be given to options and tools for sustainable resource allocation and environmental quality. Specific topics include resource stewardship, population growth, poverty and affluence, global equity and justice, ethical considerations, agriculture, water and air quality and access, energy, climate change, and non-renewable resources. SC-F, LAS.

NRS 300: Ecological Restoration
3 Credit Hours

Ecological restoration is the process of assisting the recovery of an ecosystem that has been degraded, damaged, or destroyed (Society for Ecological Restoration). The emergence of the field of ecological restoration signals a historical paradigm shift in how humans perceive their relationship to the environment. Students will be challenged to think deeply about how the intersection of history, ecology, philosophy, and culture influence the emergence of ecological restoration; to develop an integrated, interdisciplinary perspective for viewing ecosystems; and to articulate the relationship between ecosystem function and human health and well-being. Case studies will be used to examine how ecosystem knowledge, citizen participation, and adaptive strategies have factored into successful restoration of ecosystems and into reconnection of communities to these ecosystems in meaningful ways. Prerequisites: BIO 210 General Ecology and a WC-R course.

NRS 320: Environmental Resource Analysis
3 Credit Hours

This course is a study of the principles and techniques of environmental resource analysis, landscape and scenery classification, and procedures for environmental quality and impact analysis. The course will present basic information on land classification, landscape patterns, function and evaluation. It will define the difference between foreground, middle ground, and background and stress their importance in enhancing or detracting from the visitor experience. In addition, a sense of how the resource manager relates to users is developed. Students are encouraged to utilize their creativity and problem-solving skills to issues facing the industry (2 hours lecture, 4 hours lab). Prerequisite: REC 105: Recreation and Leisure in the US or ENV 100: Introduction to Environmental Sciences, or NRS 101: Introduction to Natural Resources and Society, or FOR 101: Introduction to Forestry, or SUS 101: Ecological Foundations of Sustainability AND a reinforcing level general education experience. AR-I

NRS 331: Land Use Planning
3 Credit Hours

This course will expose the students to the practices and concepts of land-use and site planning as used to guide and direct development. The course will give the students an appreciation of how the bio-physical environment and human social systems can be made to work together through the planning process. Skills that will be developed include ecological analysis, cartography, and social science research methods. The course will examine case studies where different approaches to land use planning were used. It will look at the similarities and differences among the case studies, within the context of the goals, politics, economics and cultural differences. (3 hours lecture). Prerequisite: BIO 210: General Ecology or equivalent.

NRS 335: Wilderness Management
3 Credit Hours

This course provides an introduction to wilderness and wilderness designation and management in the United States, with a special emphasis on wilderness and wilderness management in the Adirondack State Park. Topics covered include the social construction of wilderness, the history of wilderness in America, contemporary wilderness philosophy, and the politics of wilderness. Students will explore how these dynamic phenomena influence wilderness-related policy-making at local, regional, and national levels. Case studies, field trips, weekend camping excursions, and interactions with local actors and stakeholders provide students with on-the-ground insights into wilderness policy-making and management. (2 hours lecture, 4 hours lab). Prerequisite: REC 101: Introduction to Recreation or permission of the instructor.

NRS 340: Watershed Management
3 Credit Hours

Water is a basic ingredient in biological, chemical, and physical processes, linking them together in a number of ways to enable ecosystems to function. Properly functioning ecosystems are the foundation on which the long term viability of human economies is based. Watershed management focuses largely on water and manipulating ecosystem components to maintain or repair the functions of water. In this course students will learn the principles of watershed management as related to land form, water quantity and quality, land use practices, and social organizations. The course will teach students the value of the watershed as a unit of study for environmental analysis. Students will understand how land management within the watershed affects water quality. The students will also learn why and how these factors relate to human settlement patterns and the socio-economic conditions in the watershed. The course will emphasize the effect of vegetation on watershed management. (3 hours lecture). Prerequisites: BIO 101: Biology I.

NRS 410: Natural Resource Economics
3 Credit Hours

This course will cover important economic principles relevant to natural resource management with an emphasis on forest-based resources. Topics will include supply and demand, pricing, investment evaluation, net revenue maximization, non-timber forest products and the emerging field of ecosystem service valuation. These topics will be explored through a variety of case studies, both domestic and international in scope. Emphasis will be placed on learning to construct strong, defensible, land-use arguments through the use of quantitative analysis. Prerequisites: ECN 102: Microeconomics or ECN 101: Macroeconomics.

NRS 432: Landscape Ecology
3 Credit Hours

Landscape ecology is the youngest of the ecological sciences and is growing largely because of recent concern for maintaining and restoring environmental quality and habitat integrity. In fact, an understanding of the ecology of landscapes (and regions) is central to effective decision making in conservation planning, management and policy development. In this course, ecological structure, function, and change over both time and space will be addressed in the context of both landscapes and regions. We will look beyond typical land use and political boundaries to consider the broader spatial context of human activities and their impacts. (3 hours lecture). Prerequisites: BIO 101: Biology I and BIO 102: Biology II and BIO 210: General Ecology.

NRS 495: Integrated Natural Resource Management
4 Credit Hours

Integrated natural resource management (INRM) is an interdisciplinary, collaborative, and adaptive approach used to assess environmental concerns and to make recommendations for management of humans and natural environments to meet conservation goals, restore ecological integrity and sustainability, and protect human health. Students are given a natural resource problem or environmental issue and use an INRM approach to find a solution. Students must integrate relevant environmental and social-cultural information to assess the problem, and develop either a management plan for a given landscape unit or watershed, or produce a scientific report with management implications or recommendations. Other outcomes include presentations in an open forum. Students will have the opportunity to develop collaboration and team management skills through consensus building, planning, project execution and reporting. Prerequisites: BIO 210 General Ecology or FOR 310 Forest Ecology, MAT 210 Statistics, Senior Status

NRS 499: Special Topics in Natural Resources
3 Credit Hours

This will be a topical course in natural resources management. In this course students will examine issues of present-day importance to the management of natural resources. The topic of study will change from year to year, as different issues gain prominence. Although the topics will change, the purpose of the course will remain the same. That purpose will be to provide a forum to engage the students in the national, state, or local debate on the management of natural resources. (3 hours lecture). Prerequisite: NRS 340: Watershed Management, NRS 331: Land Use Planning and ENV 330: Conservation Biology.

Recreation

REC 102: Adirondack Woodsmen I
2 Credit Hours

This introductory level course will familiarize students with the rich and unique natural history of the Adirondacks. Specifically, this course will examine the important role of wilderness guides and woodsmen in the late 19th and early 20th Centuries. In addition to developing an appreciation for the history of the Adirondacks, students will be introduced to hard skills which were historically used by Adirondack woodsmen, and are today used by collegiate woodsmen and competitive lumberjacks. Examples of these skills include primitive fire-building, speed chopping, war canoe camping, axe throwing and birling.

REC 104: Adventure Education I
3 Credit Hours

This course provides students with a theoretical understanding of adventure education and outdoor recreation. This course also provides students with opportunities to acquire the knowledge and develop the skills necessary for the effective implementation of all phases of adventure programming: assessment, planning, preparation, leading/facilitating, and evaluation. Students will become proficient in group management and the professional delivery of safe, high quality, ethical and educationally sound nature-based experiences and/or adventure pursuits for diverse audiences and cultures. Students will learn how to facilitate ice-breaker activities, initiative games and low and high ropes elements. The importance of sequencing, framing, and the use of metaphors is emphasized and practiced. Skills learned include low and high ropes course set-up, knot-tying, spotting, and belaying. This course prepares students for ACCT Level One Certification. (3 hours lecture, 3 hours lab).

REC 105: Recreation & Leisure in the United States
3 Credit Hours

The historical origins of recreation and leisure and outdoor recreation in the United States are presented and discussed with a focus on how landscape aesthetics, environmental psychology, wilderness philosophy, and a select group of noted individuals have influenced Americans' attachment to wild nature and the outdoors. This course explores the history of recreation and leisure trends in the United States with a special emphasis on the ways the United States views outdoor recreation. Students are provided with opportunities to characterize and differentiate between both abstract concepts such as play, recreation, and leisure, and tangible entities such as relevant federal, state, and local agencies, and private enterprises and providers. Students also critically consider the local, regional and national outdoor recreation policies and their effects on changing trends of program and facility designs. (2 hours lecture, 4 hours lab). SC-F, SC-R, LAS

REC 120: Outdoor Recreation Leadership
3 Credit Hours

This course provides an introduction to leadership in outdoor recreation. Traditional and contemporary definitions, theories, and models of leadership are presented and discussed. Attention is given to leadership in various settings, as well as effective leadership qualities/characteristics and their development. Students complete several leadership assessments and inventories which relate, for example, leadership style tendencies. This course emphasizes decision making and judgment as foundational to effective leadership. Teaching skills, communication skills, group process skills, and basic camping skills are also emphasized given their importance to effective leadership. The labs provide students with opportunities to practice and develop their leadership skills through experiential teaching and learning exercises (involving, for example, basic—minimum impact—camping and backcountry travel skills) coupled with instructor and peer feedback. (2 hours lecture, 4 hours lab) Prerequisite: REC 101: Introduction to Recreation.

REC 133: Environmental Education
3 Credit Hours

This course focuses on the theory and practice of nature-based, experiential education programming in a variety of settings including nature centers, parks, classrooms, and the backcountry. Theoretical and strategic topics include learning theories, advancing environmental literacy, and the planning, implementation and evaluation of environmental education lessons, interpretive media, and experiences. Practical topics include practicing techniques of interpretation (interpretive talks, presentations, programs, trails, exhibits, visitor centers, digital imagery, etc.), writing and speaking in interpretive programs. The primary focus of the course is on techniques of personal interpretation. Satisfies: WC-R, RE-R.

REC 150: Introductory Whitewater Kayaking
2 Credit Hours

This course introduces students to the history, art and adventures of whitewater tandem canoeing. The student will learn about the history of whitewater paddling and develop a working knowledge of basic whitewater/river communication and safety, canoe and paddle parts, strokes, and how to read a river. Students will also develop the necessary skills working in tandem canoes to safely and adeptly navigate Class II whitewater. These skills will include the proper execution of individual and tandem strokes, upstream ferries and back ferries, eddy turns, and peel-outs. There is a additional course fee for this course. Pre-requisite: REC 101: Introduction to Recreation.

REC 150: Introductory Whitewater Kayaking
2 Credit Hours

This course is an introductory class in whitewater kayaking. Students will learn the skills needed to maneuver safely and comfortably on still and moving water (up to Class II). Lecture topics include kayaking history, kayak and paddle designs, paddling techniques, river hazards and features, dressing to paddle safely, and simple rescues. Labs consist of various practice sessions and river trips on local and regional whitewater kayaking waters. These sessions and trips will provide students with opportunities to observe, discuss, and develop basic whitewater kayaking fundamentals while critically thinking about the challenges inherent in safely negotiating whitewater in a kayak. Students will additionally assist in the planning and execution of a weekend whitewater kayaking river trip. (2 credits). Additional course fees apply. Prerequisite: REC 101: Introduction to Recreation or as a co-requisite AND permission of instructor. Preference for enrollment in course will be given to Recreation students. Any remaining slots will be made available to the entire student body.

REC 155: Introductory Sea Kayaking
2 Credit Hours

This course is an introductory class in sea kayaking. Students will learn the skills needed to maneuver safely and comfortably on open water. Lecture topics include the history of sea kayaking, kayak and paddle designs, paddling techniques, water hazards, dressing to paddle safely, basic open water navigation, and simple rescues. Labs consist of various practice sessions and trips on local and regional waterways and lakes. These sessions and trips will provide students with opportunities to observe, discuss, and develop basic sea kayaking fundamentals while critically thinking about the challenges inherent in safely paddling and navigating a sea kayak on open water. These experiences will also provide students with opportunities to develop relevant decision-making skills and judgment as leaders-in-training. Students will additionally assist in the planning and execution of a weekend sea kayaking trip. (2 credits). Additional course fees apply. Prerequisite: REC 101: Introduction to Recreation or as a co-requisite AND permission of instructor. Preference for enrollment in course will be given to Recreation students. Any remaining slots will be made available to the entire student body.

REC 160: Introductory Rock Climbing
2 Credit Hours

Introductory Rock is a top roping-focused course that is designed for students that have no (or minimal) prior rock climbing experience. The goal is simple; to teach students safe, contemporary climbing fundamentals and to do so from a perspective that students may one day enter the field of professional guiding. The course will consist of six full day sessions, the majority of which will be held in the field. The final day will include a review of skills, followed by a practicum in which students will be asked to demonstrate a particular skill to the class (as if they were teaching the skill to a beginner). Numerous introductory hard skills such as knot tying, belaying, rappelling, climbing technique etc., will be taught as well as various concepts such as anchor construction theory, risk management procedures and Leave No Trace principles, to name a few. There is a course fee attached to this class. Preference given to FNR RATE/FRRM students. Pre-requisite: REC 101: Introduction to Recreation.

REC 16: Introduction to Ice Climbing
2 Credit Hours

This course is intended to introduce students to basic information and concepts about ice climbing, including safety and risk management, instructional and information processing techniques, environmental and economic impact, and history. The goal is to teach students the most contemporary ice climbing techniques available. General climbing techniques such as belaying, knot tying and rappelling will also be covered, thus prior rock climbing experience is not required. The majority of the course will be held outside at various ice climbing venues.

PRK 340: Facilities Management
3 Credit Hours

In an era of unprecedented expansion, park and recreation facilities management is a multi-disciplinary field that has developed as facilities have increased tremendously in both number and variety. Facility management is critical in keeping any organization operating smoothly and efficiently. Professionals find themselves responsible for a variety of recreation facilities varying in type, scope, size, budget and condition with vastly different goals and expectations according to setting and location. this course brings together a variety of information, knowledge, and techniques for managing these facilities. Students will analyze and synthesize the practical application of facility management applicable to a variety of areas and facilities. (2 hours lecture, 4 hours lab). Prerequisite: REC 105: Recreation and Leisure in the United States and one (1) reinforcing level general education experience.

PRK 355: Visitor Management Services
3 Credit Hours

The basic purpose of parks is to serve people. Several basic questions that must be answered are: Who are the visitors? Where do they come from? In what activities do they participate? How long do they stay? This course first seeks to answer these types of questions by looking at user-group characteristics and participant profiles. The latter part of the course is then devoted to visitor management techniques. (3 hours lecture). Prerequisite: REC 101: Introduction to Recreation.

PRK 360: Diversity and Inclusion by Design
3 Credit Hours

Inclusion values the participation of all persons in programs and facilities. Students will consider the effects of privilege, discrimination, and prejudice on the lives of people and how these factors affect services. This course assumes all people deserve respect and to be treated as full members of their communities, thereby sharing an overall quality of life. Students are encouraged to appreciate and celebrate differences in their personal lives and those of others. In this course, students will develop the skills and knowledge they need to incorporate the principles of inclusion. Prerequisites: WC-R, SC-R, RE-R.

PRK 475: Park and Recreation Design
3 Credit Hours

This course will examine the process to assess the needs of the public, translate the need into a comprehensive plan and communicate those ideas to a variety of stakeholders. It will investigate how the public expresses their needs, how the park board prioritizes the public need, and how various administrations provide the funds to build and maintain the parks. It will analyze how design minimizes vandalism, discourages undesirable activities, reduces conflict between vehicles and pedestrians and allows the park to be available to those with disabilities. The course will explore various methods of demonstrating design, both visually and orally. The course will communicate communicate new material and utilize previous knowledge gained in other related courses. (2 hours lecture, 3 hours lab). Prerequisites: PRK 340: Facility Management, NRS 320: Environmental Resource Analysis, REC 3**: Inclusive Recreation.

PRK 480: Issues in Recreation, Adventure Travel, and Ecotourism
3 Credit Hours

This integrative course calls for the detailed study of current philosophical and applied issues in Recreation, Adventure Travel and Ecotourism with emphasis on unique and imaginative solutions to the challenges facing the Recreation, Adventure Travel and Ecotourism professional. Issues pertaining to Recreation, Adventure Travel and Ecotourism will be selected from the Recreation, Natural Resources and Hospitality/Tourism areas. (3 hours/week) Prerequisite: Senior standing.

PRK 490: Integrated Park Management: A Culminating Capstone Experience
3 Credit Hours

This course will examine the process to assess the needs of the public, translate the need into a comprehensive plan and communicate those ideas to a variety of stakeholders. It will investigate how the public expresses their needs, how the park board prioritizes the public need, and how various administrations provide the funds to build and maintain the parks. It will analyze how design minimizes vandalism, discourages undesirable activities, reduces conflict between vehicles and pedestrians and allows the park to be available to those with disabilities. The course will explore various methods of demonstrating design, both visually and orally. The course will communicate new material and utilize previous knowledge gained in other related courses. Prerequisite: PRK 475: Park and Recreation Design.

REC 201: Forest Recreation
2 Credit Hours

This seven-week course is intended primarily to give Forest Technician majors an introduction to the important concepts of forest-based recreation. Included in the course is information on the importance and value of forest-based recreation on both public and private lands. Key principles for planning, developing and managing forest recreation facilities and programs are also introduced. Relationships (both positive and negative) between recreation and other uses of forests are also discussed. (3 hours lecture).

REC 202: Adirondack Woodsmen II
2 Credit Hours

This course will build upon content presented in The Adirondack Woodsmen I, with an increased emphasis on advanced skills and exploration of contemporary Adirondack wilderness issues. Students in this course will also gain hands-on experience using draft horses and hand tools in a low-impact logging operation. Other highlights include orienteering as part of a backcountry "bushwhack" and primitive canoe building.

REC 203: Adirondack Woodsmen III
2 Credit Hours

This course will build upon the content presented in The Adirondack Woodsmen I & II, with an increased emphasis on contemporary Adirondack forest issues. Students in this course will explore the concept of the Adirondack Park as a working landscape, and will exposed to utilitarian values through the use of the college sawmill and participation in NYS hunter safety certification. Additionally, students will develop advanced skills in chopping, sawing and other traditional lumberjack skills.

REC 204: Adventure Education II
3 Credit Hours

This course builds upon the foundation of experiential education and the challenge course operation and facilitation skills presented in Adventure Education I. Students in this class will have the opportunity to learn the high ropes course gear retrieval and climber rescue techniques required for ACCT Level II Certification. This class will use initiative games and the PSC challenge course as the means by which students can develop all aspects of their adventure education facilitation skills, with a special focus on more complex frontloading and framing, the use of metaphors, and debriefing. The use of initiative games and challenge course elements will also be used to provide students with opportunities to learn about how such activities can be applied to adventure therapy programming. Pre-requisite: REC 104: Adventure Education I.

REC 215: Forest Recreation and Environmental Problems
4 Credit Hours

The course is divided into two segments of study: Resource-based environmental concerns and user-based concerns. Each are examined separately in-depth and simultaneously as they occur in the field. In the study of resource-oriented concerns, the student will learn about waters relationship to recreation, the physical properties of soil, and the concerns of proper sanitation. The study of user concerns deals with how recreational users affect the forest resource and their impact on other users of the forest, both recreational and non-recreational oriented. A sense of how the resource managers relate to recreation facility users will be developed. The course is designed to allow students to apply their creativity and problem-solving potential to issues which face the recreation industry. (Five 28-hour weeks) Prerequisite: REC 250: Recreation Leadership and Maintenance.

REC 220: Forest Recreation and Environmental Problems
4 Credit Hours

This course provides an introduction to leadership in outdoor recreation. Traditional and contemporary definitions, theories, and models of leadership are presented and discussed. Attention is given to leadership in various settings, as well as effective leadership qualities/characteristics and their development. Students complete several leadership assessments and inventories which relate, for example, leadership style tendencies. This course emphasizes decision making and judgment as foundational to effective leadership. Teaching skills, communication skills, group process skills, and basic camping skills are also emphasized given their importance to effective leadership. The labs provide students with opportunities to practice and develop their leadership skills through experiential teaching and learning exercises (involving, for example, basic—minimum impact—camping and backcountry travel skills) coupled with instructor and peer feedback (2 hours lec/3 hours lab). Pre-requisite: REC 104: Adventure Education I.

REC 240: Outdoor Education Program Design and Planning
3 Credit Hours

Recreation programs/events are essential means of delivering leisure benefits to participants. This course will introduce students to a variety of programming techniques designed to enhance individual, group and community quality of life. Emphasis will be placed on the planning, organization, implementation and evaluation of recreation programs that may be sponsored through various service providers. The course will prepare students to implement program/event “best practices” including: needs assessments; outcome-oriented goals and objectives; strategic planning tools; site/venue selection and coordination of resources; cost analysis; promotion; preparation, operation and maintenance of venues; procurement of equipment/supplies; implementation of programs/events; safety/risk management; group dynamics and facilitation techniques; evaluation of programs/events. (2 hours lecture, 2 hours lab). Prerequisite: REC 105: Recreation & Leisure in the US

As of May 2013, this course no longer satisfies the general education requirements of SC-R and RE-R.

REC 250: Recreation Leadership and Maintenance
4 Credit Hours Summer Sess.

This is a field-based course which emphasizes 'hands-on' experience in recreation leadership and construction/maintenance. Development in these skills includes minimum-impact camping, group leadership skills, and trail maintenance and construction of forest recreation facilities. Basic forest recreational management concepts will be studied and applied. (Four 40-hour weeks). Prerequisite: REC 132: Interpreting the Environment.

REC 260: Intermediate Rock Climbing I
1 Credit Hours Summer Sess.

This Intermediate I Rock Climbing picks up where Introductory Rock Climbing left off, introducing students to the concepts related to efficiently following a lead climber on single and simple multi-pitch climbs. Techniques such as belaying a leader, belaying a top roped climber from above, call signals, rope tug signals, escaping a loaded belay, protection removal/racking, belay station tie-ins and multi-pitch rappels are all taught and practiced. This course involves four, full day sessions. There is a course fee associated with this class. Pre-requisite: REC 160: Introduction to Rock Climbing.

REC 263: Outdoor Recreation Practicum
6 Credit Hours Summer Sess.

This course constitutes a Wilderness Education Association (WEA) National Standard Program (NSP) which provides students with the opportunity to become WEA certified outdoor leaders. The WEA NSP is an extended backcountry experience that gives students the chance to develop leadership skills through the daily application and evaluation of individual and group decision making and judgment. The core of the course is the student-centered teaching and learning of the standard WEA 18-point curriculum that encompasses the following knowledge and skill sets: 1) Decision making and problem solving; 2) Leadership; 3) Expedition behavior and group dynamics; 4) Environmental ethics; 5) Basic camping skills; 6) Nutrition and rations planning; 7) Equipment and clothing selection and use; 8) Weather: 9) Health and sanitation; 10) Travel techniques; 11; Navigation; 12) Safety and risk management; 13) Wilderness emergency procedures and treatment; 14) Natural and cultural history; 15) Specialized travel/adventure activity; 16) Communication skills; 17) Trip planning; and 18) Teaching, processing, and transference. This particular NSP is a 40-day course typically conducted in the Adirondack State Park and entails 5 days of on-campus pre-trip planning and preparation, 2 consecutive 2-week sessions involving canoeing and backpacking, and a concluding five-day student-planned expedition . The Outdoor Leadership Practicum offers both mental and physical challenges as students travel in small groups in remote wilderness areas away from immediate medical assistance by canoe and foot. Students typically do multiple canoe portages, carry 50-75 pound backpacks, climb 4,000 foot peaks, and complete rigorous off-trail navigation exercises. (5 weeks, including mandatory weekends). Prerequisite: REC 120: Outdoor Recreation Leadership or permission of the instructor.

REC 270: Recreation Resource Management
3 Credit Hours

This course will provide an insight into the impact of recreational use on the natural resources of soil, water, wildlife, and vegetation. Topics covered will include the recreational opportunity spectrum, limits of acceptable change, human carrying capacity of recreation environments and experiences, monitoring recreation impacts, and visitor and site management. (3 hours lecture).

REC 275: Design and Administration of Recreational Facilities
3 Credit Hours

This course is designed to further broaden the student's knowledge in recreation management, policy procedures, and in land-use planning. It will expand the student's knowledge of resource planning and design process of recreational facilities. (2 hours lecture, 3 hours lab). Prerequisites: REC 101: Introduction to Recreation and REC132: Interpreting the Environment.

REC 280: Winter Recreation
3 Credit Hours

This course provides an introduction to various aspects of winter recreation, including history, marketing trends, job prospects, techniques, teaching and leadership, required equipment and product design, risk management, user impact and resource requirements of select winter activities (e.g., snowshoeing, alpine and Nordic skiing, snowboarding, snowmobiling, and winter camping). Management issues and outdoor education concepts as well as topics specific to winter, including cold injury, ice safety, winter weather patterns and snow formation will also be covered. (2 hours lecture, 4 hours lab). Prerequisite: REC 120: Outdoor Recreation Leadership and REC 263: Outdoor Recreation Practicum.

REC 290: Outdoor Recreation Externship
3 Credit Hours Summer Sess.

Work settings provide a context to test out theories from classroom and book learning. Opportunities provided through hands-on field experiences greatly enhance the pre-professional preparation of Outdoor Recreation majors. This course requires a minimum of 240 hours of a supervised, full-time continuing off-campus experience in one appropriate professional recreation organization/agency within the Outdoor Recreation field, related to the student’s career interests and goals. This course is scheduled so that students will experience a full-time immersion at an agency/organization. Placements are based on the student’s educational goals, the peak use times of the site/service provider, and the availability of the externship site supervisor.Enrollment in this course requires a cumulative GPA of 2.00 or better. Grading is pass/fail.

REC 295: Forest Recreation Externship
6 Credit Hours

This is an optional course requiring a minimum of 400 hours of a supervised off-campus work experience in an appropriate aspect of the park and/or recreation field related to the student's recreation education. The course is offered during July and August, but time periods other than the summer session may be arranged at the discretion of the instructor. Enrollment in this course requires a GPA of 2.00 or better. Grading is pass/fail.

REC 299: Special Topics in Recreation
3 Credit Hours

This is a topical course in recreation, in which the subject matter will vary from year to year. In a given year, the subject may be an issue of current importance to the field of recreation. Alternatively, the focus may be on developing particular outdoor recreation skills, such as backcountry skiing or rock climbing. The overall purpose of the course is to allow students to engage in a particular subject in greater depth and/or in a more timely manner than is possible in other recreation courses. (3 hours lecture).

REC 300: Adirondack Nature-Based Tourism
3 Credit Hours

This course is a 10-day intensive, field-based examination and analysis of examples of adventure travel and ecotourism that depend directly on the integrity of the Adirondack ecosystem. The course will examine private and public nature-based tourism agencies, providing students opportunities to learn about the environmental, social, political and economic implications of a range of recreational programs and products. Emphasis will be on diverse interpretations of "nature," "wilderness," and "recreation," as they apply to nature-based tourism offerings. The course will also place the Adirondack model of nature-based tourism within a national and international context, providing insights about best recreational practices both in the Adirondacks and beyond. Students will spend most of the 10 days in the field, and will spend several nights in primitive wilderness locations. (Ten 8-hour days). Prerequisite: REC 320: Adventure Travel and Ecotourism.

REC 310: Risk Management and Liability
3 Credit Hours

Knowledge and competencies in risk management are essential components of the recreation professional’s toolkit. In this course, legal aspects of the recreation and leisure services field are introduced, including legal principles and the legislative process. Tort law, contracts, regulatory agents and methods of compliance are presented. Principles and practices of safety systems management, including components of risk management planning and emergency procedures, are included. Students will apply their knowledge of legal responsibilities as practitioners to selected projects involving legal/risk management issues in the recreation, adventure travel and ecotourism fields. The course will culminate with a student-designed risk management and safety operations manual for a selected recreation agency or business. (3 hours lecture). Prerequisite:REC 101: Introduction to Recreation, REC 105: Recreation and Leisure in the United States and Junior Standing.

REC 320: Sustainable Nature-based Tourism
3 Credit Hours

This course explores and provides a perspective on nature-based sustainable tourism practices and their interrelationships with human culture and ecosystem health. Detailed exploration of regional, national and international case studies will afford insights into the various forms of nature-based tourism (mass tourism, adventure travel, ecotourism, etc.), the interaction between nature-based tourism and local ecosystems and the legal and moral obligations of nature-based tourism providers to society and the global environment. This course clarifies the promises and pitfalls of the various forms of "green" adventure travel, recreation and tourism. Satisfies: SC-I. Prerequisite(s): REC 105: Recreation & Leisure in the US.

REC 340: Facilities Management
3 Credit Hours

In an era of unprecedented expansion, park and recreation facilities management is a multi-disciplinary field that has developed as facilities have increased tremendously in both number and variety. Facility management is critical in keeping any organization operating smoothly and efficiently. Professionals find themselves responsible for a variety of recreation facilities varying in type, scope, size, budget and condition with vastly different goals and expectations according to setting and location. this course brings together a variety of information, knowledge, and techniques for managing these facilities. Students will analyze and synthesize the practical application of facility management applicable to a variety of areas and facilities. (2 hours lecture, 4 hours lab). Prerequisite: REC 105: Recreation and Leisure in the United States and one (1) reinforcing level general education experience.

REC 350: Park Management
3 Credit Hours

This course provides in-depth coverage of the field of park operations. It seeks to develop a sense of history and philosophy, while providing key knowledge and skills in areas such as resource management and records maintenance. The emphasis of the course is on natural resource management, rather than recreational programming. Disciplines drawn upon in this course include ecology, forestry, wildlife and fisheries management, arboriculture, landscape architecture, planning, interpretation, law enforcement, communications, engineering, personnel management, accounting and budgeting. (2 hours lecture, 3 hours lab).

REC 355: Visitor Management Services
3 Credit Hours

The basic purpose of parks is to serve people. Several basic questions that must be answered are: Who are the visitors? Where do they come from? In what activities do they participate? How long do they stay? This course first seeks to answer these types of questions by looking at user-group characteristics and participant profiles. The latter part of the course is then devoted to visitor management techniques. (3 hours lecture). Prerequisite: REC 101: Introduction to Recreation.

REC 360: Diversity and Inclusion by Design
3 Credit Hours

Inclusion values the participation of all persons in programs and facilities. Students will consider the effects of privilege, discrimination, and prejudice on the lives of people and how these factors affect services. This course assumes all people deserve respect and to be treated as full members of their communities, thereby sharing an overall quality of life. Students are encouraged to appreciate and celebrate differences in their personal lives and those of others. In this course, students will develop the skills and knowledge they need to incorporate the principles of inclusion. Prerequisites: WC-R, SC-R, RE-R.

REC 361: Recreation Practicum
3 Credit Hours

This practical experience course takes students through planning, implementation and analysis of week-long nature-based expedition to a destination based within the continental United States or Canada. Destinations will be selected for the variety of front-country and backcountry locations available to provide students with a diversity of adventure and/or ecotourism-based experiences. These experiences include a sampling of adventure activities, lodging facilities, travel means, and service providers. The first part of the course will involve adventure prioritization, resource and time management decisions as the students design their itinerary. During this trip, which will take place during the week-long mid-semester break, students will critically analyze their experiences through the lens of sustainable tourism to discuss and determine the degree to which each and every experience and venue is nature-based, conservation-minded, and beneficial to the cultures and economies of local communities. Once the students return to campus, this analysis will be used to evaluate the detailed itinerary drafted in the planning segment of the course to critically consider the planning elements of their trip and further develop their expedition planning skills. Students are obliged to practice principles of “green” or sustainable nature-based tourism. This course entails an additional fee above tuition. Prerequisite(s) REC 240 Outdoor Education Program Design & Planning, REC 320 Sustainable Nature-Based Tourism

SC-I, RE-I

REC 362: Eco-Adventure Practicum
4 Credit Hours

This course is the second and concluding course in a two-course sequence initiated in Eco-Adventure Practicum Planning (REC 361). The Eco-Adventure Practicum 331 involves an extended, multi-day nature-based tour in a remote location. During this trip, students experience, test, and evaluate the detailed itinerary and plans they drafted in the Eco-Adventure Practicum Planning course. This experience is the implementation and enjoyment of the student-designed trip plan. Students are obliged to practice principles of “green” or sustainable nature-based tourism. This course is conducted entirely off-campus and may entail additional fees above tuition. Prerequisite: REC 361: Expedition Planning.

REC 363: Outdoor Leadership Practicum
6 Credit Hours

Consistent with Wilderness Education Association’s Six Educational Components, this course provides an extended backcountry experience that gives students the chance to develop leadership skills through the daily application and evaluation of individual and group decision making and judgment. This five-week course typically conducted in the Adirondack State Park entails 5 days of on-campus pre-trip planning and preparation, 2 consecutive 2-week sessions involving canoeing and backpacking, and a concluding four-day student-planned expedition . The Outdoor Leadership Practicum offers students the opportunity to demonstrate leadership level judgment required to make and implement quality decisions while experiencing both mental and physical challenge. Students will travel in small groups in wilderness areas away from immediate medical assistance by canoe and foot. Students typically do multiple canoe portages, carry 40-75 pound backpacks, climb 4,000 foot peaks, and complete rigorous off-trail navigation exercises. Satisfies: RE-I. Prerequisite(s): REC 120: Outdoor Recreation Leadership

REC 395: Recreation, Adventure Travel and Ecotourism Externship
6 Credit Hours

Agency, organization and business settings provide a context to test out theories from classroom and book learning. Opportunities provided through hands-on field experiences greatly enhance the pre-professional preparation of RATE majors. This course requires a minimum of 400 hours (10 weeks) of a supervised, full-time continuing off-campus experience in one appropriate professional recreation organization/agency within the Recreation, Adventure Travel and Ecotourism field. Placements are based on the student’s career interests and goals. This course is offered throughout the year to facilitate the student’s educational goals, the peak use times of the site/service provider, and the availability of the externship site supervisor. Grading is pass/fail. Prerequisite: REC 101 - Introduction to Recreation & Leisure Services, REC 320 Adventure Travel and Ecotourism, cumulative GPA of 2.0 or higher; minimum of 30 documented hours of field-based experience in RATE area.

REC 420: Winter Practicum
3 Credit Hours

This course provides an introduction to winter camping, travel, and trip planning in the Adirondack Park, extending the three-season outdoor living skills developed in REC 363. In the months prior to the winter camping trip, normally conducted in the January semester break, students will work collaboratively to plan a safe and challenging route that is appropriate for the entire group, secure and organize required equipment, analyze nutritional requirements and organize food, develop and communicate a risk management plan, contact relevant resource managers, conduct a pre-trip shakedown, and establish personal fitness goals to prepare group members for the challenges of the venture. Management issues and topics specific to winter such as cold injury, ice safety, winter weather patterns and snow formation are also covered.  This course familiarizes students with basic winter camping and traveling practices while providing field opportunities for relevant skill development, such as snowshoeing, backcountry skiing, navigation, and non-technical winter peak ascent. Prerequisite(s): REC 363: Outdoor Recreation Practicum OR documented 4-night camping experience with a credible recreation program (see Dean for approval). Students wishing to go on the trip associated with this course must also register for REC 421: Winter Practicum Trip PRIOR to the end of the add period. 

REC 421: Winter Practicum Trip
1 Credit Hour1

This course is the trip course associated with REC 420: Winter Practicum. Students taking this course MUST be concurrently registered for REC 420: Winter Practicum. Co-requisite: REC 420: Winter Practicum. Students wishing to go on the trip associated with this course must also register for this course PRIOR to the end of the add period.

REC 440: Recreation Theory and Practice Capstone
1 Credit Hour1

This course entails a comprehensive approach to addressing recreation issues, problems and/or concerns in which students develop research-based recommendations for program management and/or delivery in order to meet a stakeholder’s goals in the realm of recreation practice. Students will discuss and apply philosophical and ethical values as they assess recreation program decision making and effectiveness in consideration of current theoretical and applied issues in the recreation professions. In the applied element of the course, students will develop a research-based solution to a specific recreation concern or opportunity at the campus visitor interpretive center that requires the application of these principles. Students must integrate ecological and social-cultural information relevant to the interpretive center’s concerns and opportunities and ultimately develop a program provision and management plan designed to meet the programmatic goals defined by interpretive center’s administrative team. Working collaboratively, students will have the opportunity to demonstrate team management, consensus building, planning, and reporting. Students will also define a philosophical statement that articulates career goals and action plan. Prerequisites: REC 240: Outdoor Education Program Design & Planning, Senior Status

This course satisfies the Capstone requirement.

Sciences

BIO 100: Microbes and Society
3 Credit Hours

During this course students will learn about microorganisms and understand their place in ecology and the environment, their uses in biotechnology, their role in food production and other industrial applications. The course will also address ways in which microorganisms may more directly influence the quality of our lives, including infectious diseases, problems with antibiotic resistance, and issues of bioterrorism. Much of the future may be influenced by the function of microorganisms in our world, and a scientifically-based awareness of their potential is important for everyone to understand. (3 hours lecture).

BIO 101: Biology I
4 Credit Hours

This introductory course serves as a foundation for other life science courses. Students will review the process of science and the properties of life. The diversity of organisms across all domains and kingdoms will be studied using an evolutionary perspective. Students will learn about the structure and function of major organ and tissue systems in animals and plants. Ecosystem structure and evolutionary processes will also be covered. (3 hours lecture, 3 hours lab). Typically offered in fall.

BIO 102: Biology II
4 Credit Hours

This course provides an introduction to the molecular and cellular basis of life. Topics covered will include biomolecules and their behavior in living systems, cell structure and function, metabolism, inheritance and biotechnology. Laboratory exercises will introduce students to techniques and investigational approaches used in the field of cell and molecular biology. This course will provide a foundation for understanding scientific methods, models and hypotheses that form the basis of our current knowledge in the field of cell and molecular biology, and to appreciate the role this knowledge plays in society. (3 hours lecture, 3 hours lab). Typically offered in spring.

BIO 204: Plant Biology
3 Credit Hours

In this course students will be introduced to the diversity, structure, and economic uses of plants. Topics discussed in this course include anatomy and physiology of plants, biochemistry, cell structure, classification of major groups of plants, life cycles, and unique adaptations plants have acquired to live in various environments. Prerequisites: BIO 101: Biology I and BIO 102: Biology II. Typically offered in spring.

BIO 205: Animal Biology
3 Credit Hours

This lecture course builds on the prerequisite courses by focusing specifically on animal biology using a taxonomic approach. Each major animal phylum will be studied in detail with respect to its morphology, physiology and evolutionary relationship to other animal phyla. Emphasis will be placed on understanding how the evolutionary changes seen across animal groups relate to specialization and success in a wide variety of environments. Prerequisites: BIO 101: Biology I and BIO 102: Biology II. Typically offered in spring.

BIO 210: General Ecology
4 Credit Hours

This is a general ecology course that stresses niche parameters, population dynamics and regulation, species interactions, and community organizations and change. The course concludes with a coverage of the basics of ecosystem ecology. In the lab component, field work and work with computer models reinforce concepts covered in class. (3 hours lecture, 3 hours lab). Prerequisites: BIO 101: Biology I. Typically offered in fall and spring.

BIO 220: Evolution
3 Credit Hours

This course will address the development and current state of evolutionary theory. Students will learn about sources of genetic variation, natural selection and other processes involved in molecular evolution. The course will also address population genetics, the formation of new species and macro-evolutionary processes. (3 hours lecture). Prerequisites: BIO 101: Biology I and BIO 102: Biology II.

BIO 225: Genetics
3 Credit Hours

This course provides an introduction to study of the science of inheritance, and will include exploration of the molecular basis of inheritance, DNA technology, structure and behavior of chromosomes, genomics, transmission genetics and the basic principles of molecular evolution and population genetics. (3 hours lecture). Prerequisites: BIO 101 and 102. Typically offered in spring.

BIO 230: Comparative Vertebrate Anatomy
3 Credit Hours

The major topic of this course is comparative vertebrate anatomy, presented in an evolutionary context. Students will explore the changes over time in vertebrate anatomy in both different taxa and the evolution of major organ systems across taxa. Hands-on dissections during the class time will allow the students to better understand the evolution of vertebrate traits. Prerequisite: BIO 101: General Biology I. Typically offered in spring.

BIO 310: Biological Effects of Environmental Toxins

3 Credit Hours

Is it safe to drink the water? Is it safe to breathe the air? This question is of primary concern to those concerned with human impacts on the environment. A mechanistic understanding of how environmental toxins exert their biologic effects is critical to determining exposure limits of human and wildlife populations. This course offers a unique approach to the study of cellular and molecular biology by exploring, in depth, the mechanisms of action of currently-relevant environmental toxins. Students will explore how cells and organisms adapt and respond to the presence of toxic substances, why certain organs and tissues are specifically targeted, histopathology of important target organs, and methods involved in toxicity testing. Prerequisites: BIO 102: General Biology II and CHM 141: General Chemistry I. WC-I, AR-I, SC-I, RE-I.

BIO 320: Evolution

3 Credit Hours

This course will address the development and current state of evolutionary biology. Students will learn about sources of genetic variation, natural selection and other processes involved in both organismal and molecular evolution. Topics also include micro-and macro-evolutionary processes, the history of life on Earth, and ongoing conflicts between evolutionary theory and creationist worldviews. (3 hours lecture). Prerequisites: BIO 101: Biology I and BIO 102: Biology II. Typically offered in fall.

BIO 335: Plant Ecology and Systematics
3 Credit Hours

This course focuses on two complementary aspects of plant biology: terrestrial plant ecology and plant systematics. For the plant ecology portion, this course will address the underpinnings of the field including a brief history, the species or plant population as an ecological unit, the plant community as an ecological unit, and the influence of environmental factors on individual plants, plant populations, and plant communities. Succession and disturbance will be investigated in the context of the ecosystem concept. In addition, the sampling and classification of plant communities will be addressed. For the plant systematics portion of this course, students will learn how major groups of vascular plants are classified, named, and identified. Special attention will be given to the identification of the native regional flora. (3 hours lecture). Prerequisites: BIO 101: Biology I and BIO 102: Biology II and BIO 210: General Ecology.

BIO 355: Plant Physiology
3 Credit Hours

Through reading, discussing and reporting on current literature, and through active participation in course research projects using plants in our local habitats, students will build on their basic biological and ecological background from previous courses. Students will develop an understanding of the physiological mechanisms that are necessary for and influence plant acquisition of energy and allocation of that energy under different environmental scenarios/conditions. This understanding will be demonstrated through their ability to describe plant physiological concepts in their own terms, link concepts with others, and use that information to draw conclusions and perhaps predict or hypothesize about novel scientific problems in the field. (2 hours lecture, 3 hours lab). Prerequisites:BIO 210 General Ecology and BIO 204: Plant Biology. WC-I, AR-I. Typically offered in spring - odd years.

BIO 361: Entomology
4 Credit Hours

Students will learn about the biology and classification of insects. Topics covered include insect diversity, morphology, physiology, and behavior. For the lab portion of the course, students will collect, observe, and classify insects based on morphological characteristics. (3 hours lecture, 3 hours lab). Prerequisites: BIO 101: Biology I and BIO 102: Biology II. Typically offered in fall - odd years.

BIO 362: Ichthyology
3 Credit Hours

Ichthyology is the scientific study of fishes. This includes morphology, physiology, and ecology of freshwater and marine fishes. Structure, function, evolution, and behavior of fish are discussed as adaptations to the environment. Laboratory exercises are designed to provide the student with the opportunity to explore the internal and external morphology of fishes, to observe common behavior, and to practice taxonomic identification of fishes using dichotomous keys. (5 contact hours). Prerequisites: BIO 101: Biology I and BIO 102: Biology II. Typically offered in spring.

BIO 363: Mammalogy
4 Credit Hours

Students in this course will develop an appreciation for the diversity of mammalian form and function, in anatomical, physiological, and ecological contexts. Course content covers description of mammalian taxa, adaptations for extreme environments, feeding strategies, reproduction, and community interaction. Students will become proficient at identify mammals by their skulls and skins. This course is integral for any student who wishes to research or manage mammals. (3 hours lecture, 3 hours lab). Prerequisites: BIO 101: Biology I and BIO 102: Biology II. Typically offered in spring - even years.

BIO 364: Ornithology
4 Credit Hours

Ornithology is the study of birds. Lecture topics in the course will address the physiology, behavior, ecology and evolution of birds. The laboratory portion of the course will address bird morphology, behavior and vocalizations as it relates to bird identification and will include several field trips to local birding areas. (3 hours lecture, 3 hours lab). Prerequisites: BIO 101: Biology I and BIO 102: Biology II, and BIO 205: Animal Biology or FWS 270: Natural History of North American Vertebrates. Typically offered in spring.

BIO 366: Herpetology
4 Credit Hours

This course is an in depth study of the biology of amphibians and reptiles including aspects of their evolutionary history, taxonomy, anatomy, physiology, ecology, behavior, conservation, and natural history. The emphasis is on adaptive breakthroughs within each major lineage as studied in a phylogenetic context. Laboratory and field experiences will complement and expand upon topics introduced in lecture. Pre-requisites: BIO 101, General Biology; BIO 102, Introduction to Cell and Molecular Biology; BIO 210 General Ecology OR FOR 310 Forest Ecology. Typically offered in fall.

BIO 375: Environmental Microbiology
3 Credit Hours

Through individual studies, as well as cooperative activities during classes and laboratory sessions, students will broaden their understanding of microbial cell biology including cell morphology and structures, growth and reproduction, metabolic processes, and regulation of cellular activities. Topics related to microbial genetics will address natural genetic processes as well as genetic engineering. Issues concerned with the interactions of microorganisms and humans in the areas of biotechnology and applied industrial microbiology, as well as human systems that influence microbial diseases and their control will be addressed. Students will also study microbial interactions and adaptations, and the impact of the microorganisms in the environment. In the laboratory portion of the course, the students will learn basic techniques used to study microorganisms, and apply these skills to investigate some of their functions and interactions. Prerequisites: BIO 101, BIO 102, and BIO 210

AR-R,SR-S, WC-I, AR-I. (3 hours lecture)

BIO 410: Animal Behavior
4 Credit Hours

Animal Behavior is an integral course for anyone wishing to understand animal biology or ecology. Students will explore the basis (genetics to environmental) for animal behavior and be able to describe, quantify, and analyze animal behavior. Students will use Tinbergen's four why questions (development, causation, function and evolution) to explain animal behaviors such as foraging, reproductive, social and parental behaviors. An inquiry based lab accompanies the lecture. Many of the lab exercises are experimental, focus on invertebrates as model systems, and occur in controlled indoor environments although a few labs are field based and focus on vertebrates. Students should have a good understanding of experimental design and statistical analysis before taking Animal Behavior. (3 hours lecture, 3 hours lab) Prerequisites: BIO 101, BIO 102, MAT 210. Typically offered in spring - odd years

BIO 430: Biometrics
3 Credit Hours

This course will present a computer-based approach to statistics as applied to biological systems. Students will be exposed to real experimental data to study the methods used to analyze that data. The course will give students an appreciation of the widespread use of statistics and its importance in decision making. The methods that will be emphasized in this course are experimental design, sampling techniques, regression analysis, analysis of variance, and non-parametric tests. (4 hours lecture). Prerequisite: MAT 210: Statistics.

BIO 455: Biotechnology
3 Credit Hours

This course provides an in depth exploration of state-of-the art technology currently being used in the biological sciences including DNA technology, genetic engineering, genome projects, antibodies, protein analysis and purification, gene expression, cell culture, cloning and stem cell research. Prerequisites: BIO 225: Genetics

BIO 457: Aquatic Invertebrates
3 Credit Hours

This course explores the ecology of invertebrates in freshwater ecosystems. Special attention will be given to taxonomy and diversity, the role of invertebrates in aquatic food webs, and the implications non-indigenous invertebrates have on aquatic systems. The laboratory component is designed to provide students with skills in invertebrate sampling, identification, and culturing. (2 hours lecture, 3 hours laboratory). Prerequisites: BIO 101: Biology I, BIO 102: Biology II, and BIO 210: General Ecology.

BIO 472: Paleoecology
3 Credit Hours

This course provides an introduction to paleoecology, the study and documentation of past ecosystems and development of long-term perspectives on ecological processes, environmental management practices, and environmental changes of both human and non-human origins. Lab activities include coring techniques, sediment and microfossil analyses, sample dating methods, field trips within and/or outside the Adirondacks, oral presentations, scientific writing, and computer applications. Prerequisites: BIO 210: General Ecology or FOR 310: Forest Ecology. Typically offered in spring.

BIO 476: Winter Ecology
4 Credit Hours

We will apply the basic principles of chemistry, physics and biology to study ecology as it applies to the challenges of the winter environment (as we know it). We will design and conduct experiments in winter ecology that test hypotheses we develop from theory that has resulted from other research. We will study the options that different groups of plants and animals have for dealing with the stresses of winter. We will focus on the behavioral, physiological, and morphological adaptations to low temperatures, lack of food availability and lack of available water. We will examine the properties of snow and how the physical structure of snow changes over time. We will also explore the interaction between snow characteristics and those animals that face life in the cold. Prerequisites: BIO 210: General Ecology or MAT 210: Statistics). Typically offered in spring - even years.

BIO 499: Special Topics in Biology
3 Credit Hours

In this course students will engage in more in-depth study within a major subdiscipline of biology, such as cellular biology, physiology, organismal biology or ecology. In most cases, student demand and/or faculty expertise are factors that influence the selection and timing of this course. Students enrolling in the course will be expected to have foundational biological knowledge. This course is intended to supplement those designated biology courses described in the PSC catalog. Prerequisite: Junior standing.

CHM 141: Chemistry I
4 Credit Hours

This course focuses on the fundamental principles and laws underlying chemical action, their integration with the theories of atomic structure and chemical bonding, and correlation with the position on the periodic chart. Students will study atomic structure, states of matter, chemical measurements (stoichiometry), nomenclature, gas laws, spectroscopy, periodicity, and chemical bonding. (3 hours lecture, 3 hours lab). Prerequisites: MAT 125 College Algebra or Accuplacer placement. Typically offered in fall.

CHM 142: Chemistry II
4 Credit Hours

This course is a continuation of Chemistry I (CHM 141) and continues the focus on the fundamental principles and laws underlying chemical action. Students will study oxidation/reduction, solutions, ionization and electrolysis, acids, bases and salts, chemical and ionic equilibrium, coordination compounds, kinetics, and a short introduction to organic chemistry. The course has a required three-hour laboratory that focuses on qualitative analysis. (3 hours lecture, 3 hours lab). Prerequisite: CHM 141: Chemistry I. Typically offered in spring.

CHM 241: Organic Chemistry I
4 Credit Hours

The course is designed to cover the wide range of topics concerning the chemistry of carbon. Students will study chemical bonding, nomenclature and reactivity of hydrocarbons, alcohols, ethers, and alkyl halides, configuration of alkanes, and cycloalkanes, and stereochemistry. Additionally, students will learn various reactions mechanisms, with an emphasis on nucleophilic substitution reactions. The laboratory will focus on fundamental techniques in organic chemistry, e.g., distillation, purification, synthesis, chromatography and spectroscopy. (3 hours lecture, 3 hours lab). Prerequisites: CHM 141: Chemistry I and CHM 142: Chemistry II. Typically offered in fall.

CHM 242: Organic Chemistry II
4 Credit Hours

This course is designed to be a continuation of Organic Chemistry I (CHM 241) in the study of carbon compounds. Students will study reactions of aromatic compounds, aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids, amines, esters, carbohydrates, and lipids. Additionally, students will study the theory of various spectroscopic methods of structure determination. The laboratory will concentrate on the synthesis and analysis of organic compounds. This course, along with CHM 241: Organic Chemistry I, is designed to satisfy the requirements for those students transferring to four-year institutions in pursuit of a baccalaureate degree. (3 hours lecture, 3 hours lab). Prerequisite: CHM 241: Organic Chemistry I. Typically offered in spring.

CHM 310: Environmental Chemistry
4 Credit Hours

This course emphasizes environmental laboratory techniques, precision, and safety. The course is a study of the sources, reactions, transport, effects, and fates of chemical species in the study of water, soil, and air environments, as well as the influence of human activity upon these processes. (3 hours lecture, 3 hours lab). Prerequisite: CHM 141: Chemistry I or equivalent.

CHM 330: Biochemistry
3 Credit Hours

This course explores the molecules that comprise living things and the specialized set of chemical reactions that have evolved to sustain life. Topics will include the chemical nature of biomolecules; thermodynamics and bioenergetics; protein structure and analysis; enzymes and enzyme kinetics; design, control and regulation of metabolic and other biochemical pathways. (3 hours lecture). Prerequisites: BIO 102 Co-requisite: CHM 241 Organic Chemistry. QP-I.

ENV 100: Our Environment
3 Credit Hours

This course introduces non-science major students to key concepts in environmental science. Students will gain an understanding of the interrelationship between the economy and the environment, and the balancing of problems and solutions in an integrated manner on a personal, local and global basis. (3 hours lecture).

ENV 110: Foundations of Environmental Science
4 Credit Hours

This course is for students entering the Environmental Science and the Ecological Restoration programs. The lecture portion will cover three essential foundations: ecosystem patterns and process that govern the flow of energy and material resources, ongoing and emerging issues that affect these patterns and processes, and management approaches used to address these issues. Emphasis will be given to ecological restoration as a management approach to ecosystem recovery as a science and as a way of understanding and re-connecting people to the environment. The field portion will focus on comparisons of physical environments, biological assessment, and monitoring, and matters of scale in defining environmental problems and solutions. Students will become acquainted with current research and management approaches in the Adirondacks and other regions. (3 hour lecture, 3 hour lab). Typically offered in fall.

ENV 120: Geology
3 Credit Hours

This course provides students with an overview of the foundations and scope of physical geology in the context of its influences on living organisms. Students will gain an understanding of major physical and chemical processes and events that have shaped today’s landscapes and ecosystems, will learn to identify and classify common rocks, minerals, and landforms, and will gain awareness of how physical geography influences the distribution and adaptations of Earth's life forms. (3 hours lecture)

ENV 290: Environmental Studies Practicum
3 Credit Hours

Ideally, the student will participate in a practicum in his/her third or fourth semester. The practicum can take several forms. The student can participate in one of the practicums developed by the College, e.g., the PSC Recycling Coordinator, or a part-time intern at the Adirondack Park Agency, Department of Environmental Conservation, or the Adirondack Park Visitor Interpretive Center. Or, an appropriate independent study relationship can be arranged by the student with the approval of the Dean of the Division or Program Coordinator. Enrollment in either option requires a GPA of 2.00 or better at the end of the last full semester. This course is open to any student, regardless of course of study.

ENV 315: Environmental Law and Regulatory Process
3 Credit Hours

In this course, the students will learn the legal basis for environmental protection in the U.S.A. They will begin by studying the legal system and procedures. Students will then study specific legislation governing air and water pollution, forest and wildlife management, pesticide use, and the disposal of toxic wastes. The National Environmental Policy Act, and how this landmark piece of legislation has changed the way decisions are made in the United States will be covered. The course will conclude with a study of international conventions governing the global environment. (3 hours lecture). Prerequisite: POL 202: Politics of the Environment. Typically offered in spring.

ENV 330: Conservation Biology
3 Credit Hours

The major topic of this course is biological diversity. Students will explore the various meanings of diversity, the role of diversity in natural systems and its importance in human welfare. Students will also study present and past biogeographic patterns, and factors affecting those patterns, with special emphasis on human impacts. Finally, students will focus on the methods used to ameliorate negative impacts on diversity within the framework of the social, economic, political and ecological problems involved in this endeavor. (3 hours lecture). Prerequisites: BIO 101: Biology I, BIO 102: Biology II, BIO 210: General Ecology, or FOR 310 Forest Ecology. Typically offered in spring.

ENV 350: Atmospheric Science
3 Credit Hours

This course will provide a study of the nature and causes of atmospheric phenomena and pollution, along with basic physical and chemical processes and energetics. Air Pollution will also be covered along with visits to our New York State Department of Environmental Conservation Air Pollution Monitoring Station. Topics include composition and structure of the atmosphere, atmospheric thermodynamics, hydrostatics, solar and terrestrial radiation, cloud and precipitation processes, elementary dynamics, atmospheric wind and pressure patterns, and air pollution and its effect on the Adirondack Park. Prerequisites: CHM 141: Chemistry I and CHM 142: Chemistry II.

ENV 361: Limnology
4 Credit Hours

This course examines the structure and function of aquatic ecosystems with specific focus on the physical, chemical, and biological processes of lakes. Themes related to human impact on aquatic systems and watershed level approaches to limnology are common threads throughout the course. The laboratory is designed to provide students with the knowledge and ability to collect, analyze, interpret, and disseminate limnological data. (3 hours of lecture, 3 hours of lab). Prerequisites: BIO 101: Biology I, BIO 102: Biology II, and CHM 141: Chemistry I. Typically offered in fall.

ENV 420: Environmental Impact Assessment
3 Credit Hours

The purpose of this course is to help the student recognize the profound impact of human activity on the inter-relations of all components of the natural environment, particularly the influences of population growth, high-density urbanization, industrial expansion, resource exploitation and new and expanding technological advances. We will evaluate the impact of human activities on our nations earth resources, fish, wildlife, endangered species, terrestrial biota, marine life, surface waters, ground waters, air, historic and cultural resources. This will allow us to explore the critical importance of restoring and maintaining environmental quality to the overall welfare and development of mankind. Finally, it will cover policies and procedures used by federal, state, and local governments to create and maintain conditions under which people and nature can exist in harmony. Prerequisites: POL 202 Politics of the Environment or FOR 350 Forest Policy. Typically offered in spring.

ENV 455: Sustainable Development
3 Credit Hours

This course is primarily concerned with the continued challenges and opportunities of finding sustainable patterns and processes of development within the international, national, regional, and local communities for the future. This course also provides a historic look at the demographic pressure on renewable and non-renewable resources and demonstrates the need for management strategies. Management of both resource supply and demand is considered. Sustainable resource management methods are applied to specific resources including soil, water, minerals, forests, energy, and food. The inter-relationship and sustainability between natural and cultural resources are studied. (3 hours lecture) Prerequisite: Junior standing. Typically offered in spring.

ENV 471: Stream Ecology and Management
3 Credit Hours

Structure and function of river and stream ecosystems will be studied. Variables at several spatial and temporal scales will be hierarchically linked to the physical, chemical and biological attributes of stream environments. Conceptual models will be used to describe constraints that large-scale geomorphic patterns and processes place upon small-scale patterns and processes as related to primary production, invertebrates and vertebrates. The rationale behind watershed-based approaches and methodologies to assessment and monitoring of stream ecosystems will be explored. Students will learn how to design a watershed assessment and monitoring project which links land uses with monitoring data. (2 hours lecture, 3 hours laboratory). Prerequisites: BIO 101: Biology I and BIO 102: Biology II, BIO 210: General Ecology. Typically offered in fall.

ENV 473: Wetlands Ecosystems and Management
3 Credit Hours

We will study and discuss the ecology and management of wetland ecosystems. Among the topics we will cover are, the history of wetlands in North America, wetland hydrology, physiological adaptations of wetland plants, biogeochemistry and nutrient cycling in wetlands, wetland delineation and classification, wetland restoration and mitigation, the function of wetlands in water treatment, and wetland function in the context of the landscape. (3 hours lecture) Prerequisites: BIO 101: Biology I and BIO 102: Biology II Typically offered in fall - odd years.

ENV 499: Special Topics in Environmental Science
3 Credit Hours

This will be a topical course in natural resources management. In this course, students will examine issues of present-day importance to the management of natural resources. The topic of study will change from year to year, as different issues gain prominence. Although the topics will change, the purpose of the course will remain the same. That purpose will be to provide a forum to engage the students in the national, state, or local debate on the management of natural resources. (3 hours lecture). Prerequisite: Permission of the dean.

Sciences: FSN

FSN 110: Food Science
3 Credit Hours

This course explores the fundamental processes underlying the chemical behavior of food and processing with an emphasis on physical and chemical reactions. Students will study basic food principles, processes used to preserve food, and the fundamental scientific principles behind these processes. Students will become proficient with the vocabulary of food technology in order to better understand the literature of food processing, food evaluation, and the rationale behind food laws, food processing & preservation, food microbiology & fermentation, food safety, food toxicology, and food engineering. (3 hours lecture).

PHY 140: Technical Physics
4 Credit Hours

A non-calculus based approach to physics introducing the student to the fundamental principles of physics. Topics include dynamics, statics, strength of materials, mechanical work and energy, heat, and electricity. Laboratory work is designed to illustrate the principles discussed in lecture. (3 hours lecture, 3 hours lab). Prerequisite: MAT 125: College Algebra.

PHY 241: Physics I
4 Credit Hours

This course will introduce students to the branch of physics known as classical mechanics, through a variety of classroom activities. Students will learn about the parameters that describe motion and the inter-relationships between motion and force that are embodied in Newton's laws. They will specifically study straight line motion, plane motion, rotation, equilibrium, and gravitation. Through this study, students will become familiar with the basic concepts that form the foundation of natural science. (3 hours lecture, 3 hours lab).

PHY 242: Physics II
4 Credit Hours

Students continue the study of physics that they began in PHY 241: Physics I. They will continue their study of mechanics with an introduction to fluid mechanics, harmonic wave motion, and sound. In addition, they will study thermodynamics with an emphasis on heat engines and kinetic theory. Finally, they will study electromagnetism. Through this study, students will become familiar with the basic concepts that form the foundation of natural science. (3 hours lecture, 3 hours lab). Prerequisite: PHY 241: Physics I.

SCI 299: Guided Research in Science I
3 Credit Hours

This course provides students with the opportunity to conduct advanced study and research in a subject area within the fields of Natural Resources, Science and Liberal Arts that is if of particular interest to them. The study will be selected, designed and conducted by the student under the guidance of a faculty member. (3 hours lecture) Prerequisite: Sophomore standing and permission of the instructor.

SCI 398: Guided Research in Science II
3 Credit Hours

This course provides students with the opportunity to conduct advanced study and research in a subject area within the fields of Natural Resources, Sciences and Liberal Arts that is of particular interest to them. The study will be selected, designed and conducted by the student under the guidance of a faculty member. Prerequisite: Junior standing or higher standing and permission of the instructor/advisor.

SCI 399: Guided Research in Science III
3 Credit Hours

This course provides students with the opportunity to conduct advanced study and research in a subject area within the fields of Natural Resources, Science and Liberal Arts that is if of particular interest to them. The study will be selected, designed and conducted by the student under the guidance of a faculty member. (3 hours lecture). Prerequisite: Junior standing and permission of the instructor.

SCI 499: Guided Research in Science IV
3 Credit Hours

This course provides students with the opportunity to conduct advanced study and research in a subject area within the fields of Natural Resources, Science and Liberal Arts that is if of particular interest to them. The study will be selected, designed and conducted by the student under the guidance of a faculty member. (3 hours lecture). Prerequisite: Senior standing and permission of the instructor.

Social Sciences

POL 200: Origins of American Government and Politics
3 Credit Hours

This course is devoted to a study of the origins and nature of American political thought. A survey of major ideas from Greece, Europe, and Colonial America serves as the basis for an examination of the basic political philosophy in the Declaration of Independence, the Articles of Confederation, and the Constitution of 1787. (3 hours lecture)

POL 201: American Government and Politics Today
3 Credit Hours

A continuation of Origins of American Government and Politics (POL 200), this course is an examination of the structure, organization, and operation of American government at the national level, with emphasis on the relationship between the ideal inherent in American democracy as studied in Origins of American Government and Politics and the actual operation of the government. (3 hours lecture). Prerequisite: POL 200 Origins of American Government and Politics

POL 202: Politics of the Environment
3 Credit Hours

This course explores the political process and the conflicting perspective and values involved in environmental policy making. The Adirondack Park and the Champlain Adirondack Biosphere Reserve serve as a regional focus and case study for this capstone experience. (3 hours lecture) Prerequisite: Sophomore standing.

POL 300: Contemporary Political Systems
3 Credit Hours

This course explores the political systems which operate within our dynamic global village. Special attention will be given to specific articulations of political systems (i.e., transitional democracy, authoritarianism, and liberal-commercial republic), and how they compare to one another with reference to ethical criteria for cultural, economic, and environmental responsibility. In addition, the course will place special emphasis on the temporal-spatial congruence of political systems vis-à-vis socio-economic systems. (3 hours lecture) Prerequisite: Social Cultural Foundational Experience.

PSY 101: Psychology
3 Credit Hours

The course presents a systematic approach to the study of human behavior and experience. It sets modern psychology in a meaningful context examining how the discipline has developed from its early traditions through present-day schools of thought. Students will explore the fundamental question of “nature versus nurture” in the development of the human mind. They will examine human perception, how it can differ from one culture to another, and the manner in which learning occurs. The course ties what we know about cognition, thought, and language and intelligence to the everyday lives of students. Thus, the classroom is viewed as a laboratory. (3 hours lecture)

PSY 102: Psychology of Personality
3 Credit Hours

This course is a continuation of PSY 101: Psychology. The concepts of personality development, learning, intelligence, feelings, emotions, mental illness, and the treatment of mental illness are studied. (3 hours lecture) Prerequisite: PSY 101: Psychology.

PSY 110: Organizational Behavior
3 Credit Hours

Organizations, like organisms, go through a constant process of change and unless modified will experience a life cycle of varying length. The symptoms of failure are not always evident. Often, these symptoms are systemic in nature and indicative of the manner in which the organization is designed and led. This course will focus on identifying these systemic issues while the student becomes aware of the relationships of culture to performance, the evolution of business structure, and the inevitability of change brought on by transformation of national and global economic environments. (3 hours lecture)

PSY 200: Ecopsychology
3 Credit Hours

This is a study of the developmental, therapeutic, and related benefits of exposure to the natural world, from built-up environments like gardens to the wilderness. Developmental benefits focus on self-actualization, skill development, and self concept. Study of nature's healing benefits-physical and psychological-will form a major part of the course. Among other topics covered are: biophilia, the ecological unconscious, synergistic interplay of planetary and personal well-being, and environmental therapies. A major research paper is required. (3 hours lecture)

SOC 101: Sociology I
3 Credit Hours

Sociology I provides students with an introduction to the field of sociology, the social science discipline that places emphasis on human interaction. The course offers a systematic study of the relationships between people in groups and between groups and society. The importance of culture to human socialization is emphasized, thus allowing students to investigate the nature of relationships with people from different backgrounds. (3 hours lecture).

SOC 102: Sociology II
3 Credit Hours

This is a continuation of Sociology I (SOC 101). Attention is given to contemporary social issues, their causes and solutions. Sociological principles learned in Sociology I are applied, and there is opportunity for more independent study. Social trends and social theories are covered. (3 hours lecture). Prerequisite: SOC 101: Sociology I.

SOC 105: Environment, Resources & Society I
3 Credit Hours

The introductory course in environmental studies explores the biogeophysical aspects of environmental problems within an historical perspective. The emphasis in this course is on two questions: Who are environmentalists? And, why are they concerned? (3 hours lecture).

SOC 106: Environment, Resources & Society II
3 Credit Hours

A continuation of SOC 105: Environment, Resources & Society I, stressing the inter-relationship between the natural and social sciences and the important contributions made by the arts and humanities in the inter-disciplinary approach to environmental solutions. The emphasis in this course is on two questions: What do environmentalists want? And, how can it be achieved? (3 hours lecture). Prerequisite: SOC 105: Environment, Resources & Society I.

SOC 110: Non-Western Cultures
3 Credit Hours

This class explores the so-called “Non-Western” World of Asia, Africa, the Middle East, and Latin America. It asks how this variety of peoples and regions differ from each other and from those of us in the “West,” and how are they and we are similar to each other. It explores how all portions of the world influence and interact with one another, creating new and unique cultures, and changing our own lives here in North America. (3 hours lecture)

SOC 115: Adirondack Studies
3 Credit Hours

Using the local Adirondack landscape as a living text and physical laboratory, this experiential social science course will introduce students to the local social, environmental, economic, and cultural issues that shaped the exploration and settlement of the Adirondack region within Northern New York State. The combination of original historical documentation and on-site lectures will provide the student opportunities to see, hear, feel and experience the Adirondacks much as visitors and settlers have for approximately 150 years (3 hours lecture).

SOC 199: Special Topics in Social Sciences
3 Credit Hours

This course will provide students with the opportunity to study social science topics that are not part of the traditional course offerings. The topics are selected for their potential to contribute to the intellectual development of students. In most cases, student demand or faculty expertise (or both) are factors that influence the selection of the topics. (3 hours lecture).

SOC 200: Social Issues
3 Credit Hours

This course provides students with an opportunity to examine contemporary social issues in the United States, and the manner in which similar issues confront societies elsewhere. Emphasis is placed on macro-societal issues, such as structural inequalities associated with race, gender, age, educational access, and work opportunities. In addition, students will explore the social dimensions of population growth vis-à-vis environmental degradation, the politics of underdevelopment, and the concentration of economic and political power. (3 hours lecture).

SOC 210: The SIXTIES!
3 Credit Hours

This course will trace the roots of the change, unrest, protest and lifestyle shifts of the era known loosely as The Sixties, as well as delve into the sixties themselves and their consequences, both short and long-term. The focus will be on both political and social history. In addition to exploring the standard causes and effects of historical approach, the students will be exposed to popular music, writing and trends of that period. In-depth reading will be required, as will extensive student writing. There will be a research component, a mandatory final exam and quizzes. (3 hours lecture).

SOC 220: Social Research
3 Credit Hours

Social research explores why people make the choices they make, what the consequences are of those decisions, and what possible ways we can untangle complex social issues. Everyone may have an opinion about all of these questions, but a systematic process of social research involves forming a clear question, collecting reliable data, drawing credible conclusions from those data, and interpreting this evidence in a way that differentiates reliable information from information that should be viewed skeptically. This course focuses specifically on how we construct knowledge about our world and how that reasoning can be used in an informed decision making process. Prerequisite: QP-F, WC-F. (3 hours lecture).

SOC 299: Special Topics in Social Sciences
3 Credit Hours

This course will provide students with an opportunity to study social science topics that are not normally offered. These topics are selected for their potential to contribute to the intellectual development of students. In most cases, student demand or faculty expertise (or both) are factors that influence the selection and timing of these courses. Special topics courses might include marriage and the family, Canadian history, introduction to anthropology, Caribbean America, among others. (3 hours lecture).

SOC 300: Cultural Anthropology
3 Credit Hours

Anthropology involves the systematic study of humankind and the unique and diverse ways in which humans have successfully adapted to vastly different environmental settings throughout the world. Cultural Anthropology provides students with an opportunity to explore and understand the diversity of human thought and behavior that characterize different cultures. Through the application of theoretical frameworks developed by anthropologists and the use of case studies from five continents, students will learn how we, in the Western world, can understand and appreciate the diversity of cultures and cultural expression found throughout the world today. (3 hours lecture) Prerequisite: Social/Cultural Foundational Experience.

SOC 302: The Culture of Food
3 Credit Hours

The relationship Americans have with food has changed greatly in the last two decades. A number of factors have taken us from crowd sourced, mass produced, perpetually consistent, always available, widely distributed products to a rebirth of the interest in regional, unusual, small batch, artisanal and personally created items. The course explores this cultural phenomenon with specific attention paid to its effects on how Americans choose travel and leisure spending options in relation to it. (3 hours lecture). Prerequisite: SC-F.

SOC 305: Gerontology
3 Credit Hours

Gerontology is the study of aging. This course will be an introduction to the social aspects of aging. Among the topics of interest are family relationships, health, economics, retirement, widowhood, public policy, social work, and planning for changing demographics and care of the elderly. This course will enable students to better communicate with the aging population and, therefore, anticipate their needs. Students whose career goals include working with people of various ages will benefit from this course which focuses on this growing segment of the population. (3 hours lecture)

SOC 310: Mobility in Modern Society
3 Credit Hours

People move. Sometimes, we make short trips for pleasure or business. Other times, we migrate permanently. We can be driven by opportunity, fear, curiosity, and any other of a thousand human motivations. Mobility has been a core part of the human condition since our first ancestors began to stroll around the Savannas of East Africa over 100,000 years ago. This course explores the multiple historical, contemporary, and possible future dimensions of travel and human mobility. How, why, and where have we traveled? How does travel affect the traveler and locations to which people travel? This course includes a weekend trip to Montreal that will take place during the last week of October or the first two weeks of November. All class participants must have a valid passport (or other documentation necessary for an overland trip to Canada) or be prepared to obtain one during the course of the class. (3 hours lecture) Prerequisite: Social/Culture Foundation.

SOC 315: Community Organization and Outreach
3 Credit Hours

A community is a group of people who share a common place, experience, or interest. Often communities or groups of communities come together to form collaborative partnerships to address an issue, provide a service, or produce some kind of project. This course will provide students with both a conceptual framework and the practical skills for organizing effectively in and across communities. Different types of community organizations such as grassroots citizen action groups, non-profit social service agencies, issue coalitions, and government-sponsored councils will be explored. Concepts of organizing philosophy, advocacy strategies, decision making models, power-structures, institutional change, community control, diversity, and leadership will be considered. (3 hours lecture) Prerequisite(s): COM 201 Interpersonal Communication, PSY 110 Organizational Behavior.

SOC 320: Shattering Gender Stereotypes
3 Credit Hours

This course will explore how gender has historically been defined and subsequently communicated through images, language and myths through the media, which tends to socialize, educate, and discipline sometimes in the guise of entertainment. Such stereotypes impose upon men and women the expectations of society telling them how they should act, what they should desire, who they should strive to be, and how they should value themselves: those who don't conform are often censored. Awareness of these issues should motivate students to incorporate different points of view into their own thinking and behavior, specifically to intervene when they hear others perpetuate biases, to advocate for continued parity, and to make informed personal decisions about how to live, work and vote. (3 hours lecture) Pre-requisite: Social Cultural Foundation Experience (SC-F).


SOC 400: The American Labor Movement
3 Credit Hours

An historical perspective of the labor movement in America from the early days of manufacturing, through the formation of unions, to empowered business environments of the nineties, and projected labor issues in the near future. The course will focus on how organized labor instills a sense of pride and community and how it affects the positive interactions within a society. Opposing issues of management and labor will be discussed as well as the process of collective bargaining as a vehicle for compromise. (3 hours lecture).

SOC 460: Research Methods
3 Credit Hours

This course is designed to prepare students for the research needed in the world of applied and pure science. Students learn to view a situation from a critical perspective, and explore it through the scientific method. this interdisciplinary course will guide students through the step-by-step process of doing both academic and social/business research. Students will conduct research, first, in an academic setting, and second, in a social setting. Students will execute literature searches, various data collection methods, data analyses, and final report and presentation techniques. (3 hours lecture). Prerequisite: MAT 210: Statistics.

SOC 461: Capstone Project Planning Seminar
1 Credit Hour

This course is designed to provide students who plan to complete a Capstone Independent Project (SOC 462) with the foundation for their work on their Project. Students are expected to broaden their understanding and application of skills gained in courses leading up to the Capstone, such as literature review, research methods, study design, and effective communication of information. The result of this effort will be a completed, approved proposal, prepared according to the guidelines established for Capstone Projects. Each student will select a mentor who will serve as the student’s supervisor for the Project. (1 hour lecture).

SOC 462: Capstone Project
3 Credit Hours

The Capstone Independent Project is designed to be a culminating endeavor based upon student’s coursework, reading, interests and experience. Through the application of principles, theories and methods learned, students analyze, synthesize and evaluate information. The Project provides a representative sample of a student’s work that may be used to assess student learning. Individually, students will work independently on their projects developed during the Capstone Project Planning Seminar (SOC 461), under the supervision of a mentor. Students are responsible for satisfying the established standards for successful completion of the Capstone Project, which include a substantial written report and an oral presentation. The course is offered fall and spring semesters and may be designated an honors course. (1 hour lecture and independent time). Prerequisites: Capstone Project Planning Seminar (SOC 461) and senior standing.

SOC 463: Capstone Group Project Planning Seminar
1 Credit Hour

This course is designed to provide students who plan to complete a Capstone Group Project (SOC 464) with the foundation for their work on their Project. Students are expected to broaden their understanding and application of skills gained in courses leading up to the Capstone, such as literature review, research methods, study design, and effective communication of information. Students will work with their course professor to select the focus of their Capstone Project, design the study and schedule activities that may be required in advance of the semester they complete their Projects. The result of this effort will be a completed plan, prepared according to the guidelines established for Capstone Group Projects.

SOC 464: Capstone Group Project
3 Credit Hours

The Capstone Group Project is designed to be a culminating endeavor based upon students’ course work, reading, interests and experience. Through the application of principles, theories and methods learned, students analyze, synthesize and evaluate information. The Project provides a representative sample of students’ work that may be used to assess student learning. The Capstone Group Project enables the class of students to investigate a topic of interest in their program area, which will be determined during the Capstone Group Project Planning Seminar (SOC 463). Students will work in small groups, and individually within their group, toward the completion of the overall class goal. Students are required to prepare a substantial written report demonstrating the students’ project focus, as well as the integration of their work, and an oral presentation for their group. Capstone Group Project is offered in the fall and spring semesters. (1 hour lecture, and group meeting time). Prerequisites: Capstone Group Project Planning Seminar (SOC 463) and senior standing.

SOC 499: Special Topics in Social Sciences
3 Credit Hours

Students will study topics chosen because of their present-day importance to the traditional social sciences. This course is more advanced than Special Topics in Social Sciences (SOC 199) and assumes a deeper and broader background in the enrolled student. It is intended to augment and supplement the designated social science courses described in this catalog. (3 hours lecture). Prerequisite: Junior standing.

Surveying

SRV 100: Surveying I: Fundamentals of Surveying
3 Credits

Introduces the student to the field of surveying and how it fits into forestry and other professions. Surveying I gives the students the opportunity to be introduced to surveying using traditional methodologies. The course provides a foundation for then translating these skills and knowledge into computer applications in SRV 101 Surveying II Surveying Automation. Prerequisite(s): Accuplacer placement into Quantitative Foundation or higher. Co-requisite: MAT 125 College Algebra

SRV 101: Surveying II: Surveying Automation
3 Credit Hours

Building on the traditional skills and knowledge gained in Surveying I, Surveying II gives the student the opportunity to translate those skills to computer based applications. Through project based activities and research opportunities, students will discover their role in present and future trends in the surveying profession. (2 hours lecture, 3 hours lab). Prerequisite(s): MAT 125 College Algebra, SRV 100 - Surveying I: Fundamentals of Surveying, Co-requisite: MAT 145 Trigonometry

SRV 110: Graphic Communications
3 Credits

A technical drawing course introducing basic skills necessary for the communication of ideas and designs as applied to the fields of surveying, forestry, and architecture. Types of drawings include plans, maps, introduction to CADD, and architectural drawings. (2 hours lab).

SRV 201: Intro to Field Surveying I
2 Credit Hours Summer Sess.

Field Surveying I is an intensive introductory course in plane surveying field techniques and plane surveying mathematical computations. Students are introduced to linear distance measurements (taping, electronic distance measurement), vertical measurements using an engineer’s level and field traversing using a theodolite and EDM unit. (two(2) 40 hour weeks). Prerequisite: MAT 125: College Algebra.

SRV 210: Photogrammetry
3 Credits

This course introduces the student to the surveying applications associated with aerial photography. The students develop traditional skills at measuring areas, distances, bearings, heights of objects and elevations of the ground. Basic photogrammetric concepts will be introduced and softcopy photogrammetric software will be used. Surveying requirements for aerial photogrammetry will be discussed. Prerequisite(s): MAT 145 Trigonometry (can be taken as a co-requisite), SRV 100 Surveying I: Fundamentals of Surveying

SRV 220: Computer Aided Design and Drafting (CAD) I: Fundamentals of CAD
3 Credit Hours

The course introduces students to the fundamentals of computer aided design and drafting, including software, hardware, and peripherals. Emphasis will be on 2-D applications of CAD. (2 hrs lec. 2 hrs lab).

SRV 221: Computer Aided Design and Drafting (CAD) II: Surveying Applications
3 Credit Hours

This advanced CAD course for surveyors emphasizes the surveying-specific modules within CAD for displaying a variety of surveying data. Students will be asked to develop surface models from topographic data. Maps, plats and construction drawings will be emphasized. (2 hrs lec 2 hrs lab) Prerequisite: SRV 220 CAD I, SRV 250 Topographic Surveying

SRV 235 Surveying III: Field Experience
3 Credit Hours Summer

This culminating surveying series course provides the students with the opportunity to apply the theories and techniques gained in Surveying I and II to practical, authentic, field surveying projects. Students will also develop externship proposals. (40 hrs for 3 weeks) (lec/lab). Prerequisite(s): MAT 145 Trigonometry, SRV 101 Surveying II: Surveying Automation

SRV 240: Introduction to Field Surveying II
4 Credit Hours

This course is the second in a series for non-surveying majors which focuses on practical techniques for a variety of surveying problems, including elements of route, construction, boundary, planimetric and topographic surveys. Field and lecture problems include contour mapping, grade lines, horizontal and vertical highway curves, horizontal and vertical control, stadia, short base triangulation, boundary survey, building location and batter boards, area and volume determinations, and a detailed topographic map. (24 per week, 5 weeks). Prerequisite: SRV 201 Introduction to Field Surveying I

SRV 250: Topographic Surveying
4 Credit Hours

The hands-on experience the student receives in this course emphasizes field work, calculations and computer applications required to map and report topographic data. By this point in the curriculum students will have gained on-the-job experience through their externship. This course gives students the opportunity to reflect on their externship experience in order to identify strengths and weaknesses as a surveying professional. (24 hours per week, 5 weeks) Prerequisite(s): SRV 235 Surveying III: Field Experience

SRV 260: Route Surveying
4 Credit Hours

This advanced surveying course focuses on route surveying and design. The student will study a variety of techniques to design and layout roads from preliminary to final surveys. The final project is a complete plan and profile with basic road specifications for a two lane road. (24 hours per week, 5 weeks). Prerequisite(s): SRV 235 - Surveying III: Field Experience, Co-requisite: SRV 250 Topographic Surveying

SRV 270: Law and Land Surveying
3 Credit Hours

The course considers the legal aspects of boundary location. Emphasis is on deed research and interpretation, evidence procedures, professional ethics and case law. Through this experience students will obtain a foundation in legal standards for preparing and researching land records. (3 hours lecture). Prerequisite: Communication Foundation

SRV 290: Problem Solving in Surveying
3 Credit Hours

Using problem solving techniques students will develop solutions for typical surveying dilemmas encountered in the profession. This course also serves as a culminating experience in the surveying program; as such students will have the opportunity to prepare for and take the ACSM Certified Surveying Technician Exam Level I. (2 lecture 3 hr lab). Prerequisite(s): SRV 260 Route Surveying, Co-requisite: SRV 270 Law and Land Surveying

Sustainability

SUS 120: Sustainable Community Agriculture
3 Credit Hours

An introduction to the principles and practices related to sustainable and small-scale agriculture and forestry, including: agro-forestry; local agriculture; community gardens and community forestry; small-scale farming and forestry; organic farming and forestry; non-industrial private and farm woodlot management; and agricultural and forest landowner cooperatives. The emphasis is on both domestic and international perspectives on community agriculture and forestry, including institutions, marketing and government and non-governmental organizations and policies. for the purposes of this course, agriculture is defined broadly, to include forestry and other sustainable land and water use practices that produce food, fiber, and natural resource-derived benefits and commodities. Students will begin to exposed to by (a) developing an understanding of local, regional, and global practices and issues related to sustainable agriculture; and (b) addressing a local sustainable agriculture issue or challenge and developing responses and/or solutions.

SUS 200: Conservation Design: Green Communities
3 Credit Hours

This course covers dimensions of community sustainability, including: principles and practices related to community greenscaping, including: greenspace planning; town forest development and management; introduction to urban forestry; community gardens and agriculture; conservation of community natural resources; concepts related to population dynamics and management, such as exurbanization, parcelization, and sprawl; population growth management; community-based outdoor recreation; community strategies for carbon neutrality; diversified community economies; reduction of impervious surfaces; community ecological restoration; low carbon communities (LCCs); stormwater management; alternative and renewable community energy sources.

SUS 295: Natural Resource Sustainability Field Experience
3 Credit Hours

The Adirondacks and the Champlain, Hudson, and St. Lawrence Valleys form the backdrop for the field experiences related to agriculture and forestry practices, including: organic farming and forestry; the culture of the non-timber forest products; community planning; animal powered farming and forestry; forestry certification' small-scale farming and forestry practrices; non-timber forest products; community forestry; and agroforestry. The course will rely heavily on field work and field trips, including overnight stays in the St. Lawrence and Champlain Valleys. Prerequisite: SUS 101: Ecological Foundations of Sustainability or NRS 101: Natural Resources and Society.

SUS 296: Sustainable Studies Field Experience
3 Credit Hours

The Adirondacks and the Champlain, Hudson, and St. Lawrence Valleys form the backdrop for the field experiences related to agriculture and forestry practices, including: organic farming and forestry; the culture of the non-timber forest products; community planning; animal powered farming and forestry; forestry certification' small-scale farming and forestry practrices; non-timber forest products; community forestry; and agroforestry. The course will rely heavily on field work and field trips, including overnight stays in the St. Lawrence and Champlain Valleys. Prerequisite: SUS 101: Ecological Foundations of Sustainability or NRS 101: Natural Resources and Society.

SUS 310: Conservation Design: Green Construction
3 Credit Hours

Principles and practices of sustainable/green construction, including: design and construction, siting; renewable and certified materials; permeable paving; contstruction costs; energy efficiencies; and construction-related certifications, including LEED, and certifications related to the use of certified building materials, including SFI, FSC; grounds development and ecological restoration. Prerequisite: SUS 101: Ecological Foundations of Sustainability or NRS 101: Natural Resources and Society.

SUS 350: Alternative Energy & Energy Efficiency
3 Credit Hours

Explores the political, social, environmental, and economic dimensions of alternative energy and energy efficiency. This course will explore interface with local and regional energy issues and challenges, building on students’ backgrounds in ecology, natural resource management, and economics. Of particular interest is the potential for biofuels at PSC and in the northeast US, while not ignoring other sources of renewable and alternative energy and energy conservation. Includes study of bio-fuels, solar and wind energy, energy conservation, storable and non-storable energy, carbon neutrality, stranded energy, bio-energy ecosystems and methods and ecological effects of biomass removal. Prerequisite: SUS 101: Ecological Foundations of Sustainability or NRS 101: Natural Resources and Society.

SUS 495: Natural Resources Sustainability Capstone
3 Credit Hours

This course provides the opportunity for students to integrate their knowledge and experiences related to sustainability and their exposure to the liberal arts to: (a) demonstrate mastery of the general education core and programmatic learning objectives; and (b) engage in projects in the areas of applied sustainability scienceand service to the community--based on project directions discussed and groundwork laid during SUS 490: Integrated Sustainability Seminar. In addition, students are expected to broaden their understanding and application of skills and knowledge developed in courses leading up to the Capstone, such as literature review techniques, research methods, study design, and effective communication of information. Prerequisite: SUS 490: Integrated Sustainability Seminar.

SUS 496: Sustainability Capstone
4 Credit Hours

This interdisciplinary capstone is designed to be a culminating experience for students interested in addressing the need for a more sustainable society. Students will examine the ecological, cultural, and social dimensions of a specific community or region, focusing on sustainability issues such as food security, renewable energy, conservation, sense of place, lost arts/creative arts, cultural traditions, narratives, and community resiliency. The instructor will provide an overarching research question; however, students will develop their own sub-questions that will serve as the basis for independent inquiry. Once students have completed their independent inquiry, they will work as a group to link and synthesize their findings as applied to the original research question or issue. Capstone. Prerequisites: SOC 220 Social Research or MAT 210 Statistics and ENV 455 Sustainable Development or EST 320 Global Environmental Studies Seminar.

Industry Work Experience

WRK 190 Surveying Externship
0 Credits Hours Summer

The externship experience provides students with the opportunity to become familiar with what it is like to work in the surveying profession. This experience should provide the student with valuable feedback about how effectively students are being prepared for the work force that can help the student focus on needed skills and knowledge during the remainder of the program. Prerequisite(s): Externship proposal submitted in SRV 235 Surveying III: Field Experience or equivalent proposal approved by the Dean.

WRK 290 Culinary/Hospitality Industry Work Experience/Internship
0 Credit Hours Fall/Spring/Summer

Students apply knowledge from classroom learning to on the job employment experiences that support their career goals. Students are required to complete a minimum of 400 hours of documented work experience. This course satisfies the Associates degree requirement and the first half of the baccalaureate degree requirement for industry work experience. Students must complete a minimum of 200 work hours at any given Internship site. Assistance with Internship placement is available through the Office of Hospitality Internships.

WRK 490 Industry Work Experience Internship
0 Credit Hours Fall/Spring/Summer

Students apply knowledge from classroom learning and from previous industry work experience to on the job employment experiences that support their career goals. Students are required to complete a minimum of 400 hours of documented work experience. This course satisfies the second half of the baccalaureate degree requirement for industry work experience. Students must complete a minimum of 200 work hours at any given Internship site. Assistance with Internship placement is available through the Office of Hospitality Internships. Prerequisite(s): WRK 290 Industry Work Experience Internship